Hysteroscopy is a procedure whereby a doctor uses a thin telescope-like instrument called a hysteroscope to view the inside of a woman's uterus. The hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina and cervix and into the uterus. Hysteroscopy may be performed for diagnostic purposes, for example to confirm the presence of fibroids, investigate causes of infertility, or locate a displaced IUD. It may also be performed for operative procedures, in place of abdominal surgery, to remove fibroids or treat other conditions.
Hysteroscopy can be performed with local or general anaesthesia, or even none at all, though I suspect that would be quite painful. Usually, once the hysteroscope is inserted, a liquid or gas will also be released into the uterus to expand it so the doctor can get a better look; s/he will also shine a light through the instrument so that s/he can see what's in there. The physician can also insert small instruments through the hysteroscope to perform surgery; for example, a laser, or a resectoscope with an electric current, can be used to perform myomectomy (burning away small fibroids from the inside of the uterus). Because hysteroscopy is a non-invasive procedure, it is usually performed as outpatient surgery.