A concept I believe is important, but which I'm having a very hard time trying to define. I know there are people who have spent a good deal more time thinking about this -- if anyone can give me any references I'd be most grateful.
A framework violation is a "thinking outside the box". It is an operation which, in order to be consistent, forces the use and/or invention of a larger subsystem which underlies the usual perceptual operations.
An example is Robert Pirsig's discorse on quality.
Jokes. Especially Monty Python, which is especially good at breaking cultural assumptions.
Godel's Incompleteness Theorum, and the concepts leading up to the theorum.
Exceptions in computer programs.
I'm sure there are many more, but I'm still trying to figure out exactly what I mean.