Cytectomy is a the surgical procedure in which the bladder is removed. This may be done if the bladder is non-functional, or cancerous. In male patients it is usually necessary to remove the prostate gland at the same time, and in female patients the overies, uterus and fallopian tubes are also removed. Because of this the procedure causes infertility.

Urine is normally created in the kidneys. From there it flows down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder fills up a sphincter can be relaxed an urine will flow out through the urethra. For urine to be expelled through the urethra it is necessary for there to be pressure. This is not possible if there is no bladder. For this reason, a new stoma(opening) must be created, through which urine can dribble, and collect in a bag.

The part of the body that is used to form the stoma is a section of small intestine. This is moved, and a stoma created. The two ureters are then cut, and joined to this loop of intestine. The bladder and other organs can then be removed. After the operation the patient must be given intravenous drips to provide energy while the intestine recovers.

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