The title of one of the 9 Archons of the polis of Athens, and the most important of them. The reckoning of years in Athens was made by the names of the Archontes Eponymoi (plural from Archon Eponymos), and so one can read in their writings that a certain accurance happened in the year of Themistocles and another thing occured in the year of Kleisthenes.

The Archon Eponymos was responsible for all civic affairs of the polis, including marriages, registration of population, legislation, the gathering of the ecclesia, the building of public buildings, presiding over the courts (except for those which were under the presiding of the Archon Basileus), tax collection, econonics (mainly export and imports and contracts) etc., later the Archon Eponymos was also responsible for peace contracts, alliences and foreign relations.

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