, after defeating the Japanese
and restoring the China-friendly
ruler in 1884, became the head of new, modernized army. He was approached by Tan Si-tong
to kill Ronglu
in a conspiracy against Ci-xi
, but Yuan Shi-kai
betrayed them. Ci-xi
under house arrest, ending all possibility of dynastic revolution.
He was later sent to suppress the Yi he quan Boxers
A key figure in military reforms, he headed the modernized army, but generals owed loyalty to him, not to the Manchu
government. He was sent away to Japan
but recalled to deal with rebellions in south China
His allegiances with both sides allowing Yuan
to become President
of the Chinese Republic
in 1911 when revolutionaries took over militarily what he didn’t take politically.
He assassinated Song Jiao-ren
in 1913 and took over the Guomindang
, then disbanded the party and made himself military dictator
. When he ascended the Dragon Throne
1916 with constitutional monarchy, many areas revolted and he died a few months later. After his death his generals became regional warlords.