These are the dishes I was served as a kid. Not all are strictly Danish in origin, but most are eaten regularly by Danes. Many of these are based around fish and/or potatoes. You can also look at Nordic Recipes for related dishes.
Smörgåsbord (buttered bread table) is actually the Swedish name for it. In Denmark, we call it Smørrebrød (buttered bread) or Det store kolde bord.
Note: If a link lacks a writeup, ask me, and I will change my priorities accordingly... The wupped dishes are bold.
Sources are my mother's cookbooks.
Feel free to /msg me if you know of more dishes.