(Also Djehuty, Tehuti, Thot, Thout, Zehuti, Djhowtey)
”Lord of Time”
“Reckoner of Years”
Thoth is an Egyptian creator god (Khemenu) and lunar god, credited with inventing writing, timekeeping, music, magic, art, medicine, mathematics and astronomy. His attributes are a writing palette or a palm leaf. This deity was regarded as the protector of all knowledge, as well as the giver of knowledge and the tongue of Re. Hieroglyphs were sacred to him, and he would punish scribes who abused their writing and reading skills (writing was considered very powerful). He also protected teachers and other distributors of knowledge.
Thoth was himself a scribe in the Ennead. He records the souls that enter the Duat (underworld), as well as assisting in the Hall of Two Truths, where he records the proceedings and announces to Osiris the results of the weighing of the deceased’s heart against the feather of Ma´at. His most important role is that of author of the Book of the Dead.
This deity played an interesting role in the formation of the calendar year. A master negotiator (and settler of disputes), he petitioned and won five extra days from the moon to complete a year of 365 days. In other legends he settled disputes between the gods themselves. In one myth, he protected Isis during her pregnancy and then healed Horus when Seth tore out his eye.
Thoth is often depicted as a man with the head of an ibis or a baboon of the genus Cynocephalis. In both cases he is shown with a crescent moon surrounding a full moon above his head. He carries a pen and scrolls. The association with the baboon is thought to be due to the tendency of these animals to “greet” the sunrise by raising their arms and “singing” to it.
His consorts are either Ma´at (who personified balance, justice and order) or Seshat (the goddess of writing, measuring and foundations). Thoth produced eight children, the most import of which was Amun.
Thoth was later identified and combined with the Greek god Hermes as Hermes Trismegistos (Hermes the thrice great), and was popular in medieval alchemy.
Cult Center: Eshmunen or Hermopolis
Festivals: (exact dates not historically verified)
19th July - 1st Thuti – Feast of Thoth
6th August - 19th Thuti - Chief Festival of Thoth
20th August - 3rd Paopi - Thoth orders the healing of the eye of Horus
23rd October - 7th Koiak – Ceremony of Thoth
13th December - 28th Tybi - Day of Thoth's taking the oath
14th December - 29th Tybi - Thoth sends Bast and Sekhmet to guide Egypt
24th January - 10th Pamenot - Day of Coming of Thoth
3rd April - 19th Pachons - Day of the Counting of Thoth Who heard Ma´at
14th May - 30 Payni - Thoth appears with Shu to bring back Tefnut