A short story written by Arthur C. Clarke, published in 1956.
A group of human explorers are examining the remains of a planet, a shell left from a supernova from long long ago. They find there indications of a civilization similar in advancement to humans of the 20th century. The story follows a scientist/priest who is on this exploration team.
I can't say much more without giving everything away. My copy was perhaps 4 or 5 pages long, so it just presents the idea and leaves the rest to the reader (as an exercise). It's deep without being heavily religious. (not implying that it needs to be religious to be deep)