The Tang Dynasty
A.D. 618 - 907
The Tang Dynasty succeeded the Sui dynasty due to the Sui Dynasty's costly military campaigns against Korea and high taxes that burdened the populus. The capital of China was in Ch'ang-an during the Tang Dynasty. Their rule was a climax in Chinese civilization, having gained a new religion, invented a type of printing mechanism, and reaching a new height in the arts. Their vast territorial rule highlighted the impact they have had on Chinese Civilization during the Tang dynasty.
"At one point, the death penalty was abolished and hospitals were founded for the beggars of the capital."
~ Tang Dynasty (http://www.omart.org/itoc/time/tangdynasty.html).
Block printing was invented and many works of literature were made available, especially to the common people. It was the golden age of literature and art, an example of this is the Tang Dynasty horse found in a tomb of an aristrocratic family. It's detail, colors, and unusual manner of bowed head is a signature of the Tang Dynasty. Buddhism also made itself permanent into the the Chinese culture, having been introduced by traders and missionaries from India.
The system of civil service examinations that was used until 1911, was also designed by the Tang Dynasty. This created the most able bodied officials. They were also Confucian scholars. Supporting the rulings of the Tang dynasty, the old ways of depending on the warlords and monarchs of the outskirts were gone with. Loyality to the imperial was now supported from the stature and recognition officials got within their respected territory
A quick chronological look is given here, from the website China and East Asia Chronology (http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/China/Tang.html).
627-649: Reign of T'ai-tsung
621: First Zoroastrian temple built in Ch'ang-an
630: Defeat of Eastern Turks
635: First Nestorian Christian missionary arrives in Ch'ang-an
656: Defeat of Western Turks
609-705: Reign of Empress Wu
694: Manicheism comes to China
713-755: Reign of Hsuan-tsung
The height of Tang art
751: Battle of Talas: Chinese defeated by Arabs--The farthest westward advance of the Chinese Empire. As a result of this battle, Paper making spreads to the Abbasid Empire
755-763: Rebellion of An Lu-shan
763: Tibetans raid the capital of Ch'ang-an
780: Tax Reform: the equal field system is abandoned.
821: Peace Between China and Tibet
839: The official texts of the Confucian classics is engraved on stones.
840: Uighur empire defeated
841-845: Religious Persecutions
Manicheism, Nestorianism and Zoroastrianism are driven out
Buddhism is attacked: wealth of monasteries confiscated, shrines are closed.
879: Looting of Canton