There are numerous factions in Battle.net's Starcraft game, spawning a variety of playing styles and game types, ultimately resulting in the formation of an actual Starcraft "culture".
A comp stomper is a person who participates in a comp stomp, which is a game where the human to AI ratio is greater than one, i.e. 2:1, 3:1, 7:1, etc. This person desires to gain multiple wins through rallying in large groups to easily fight and defeat one computer, thus incrementing one's win count to insanely large numbers.
An anti comp stomper is a person who participates in a comp stomp with the intention of eliminating all of the comp stompers.
A money map is a map in which resources are overabundant, resulting in the gaming strategy of gathering the most units and maxing your population limit in the least amount of time in order to overwhelm one's opponent.
A normal map is a map where the focus is to use the map's terrain as well as your race's variety of units to outwit and overthrow your opponent.
NR (insert time limit)
NR is an acronym for No Rush. This is a type of game where a time limit is set for how long one must wait before attacking his/her opponents. This style is most typically used by newbies who are unable to create an early-game defense.
Rush is a type of strategy where one tries to accumulate the optimal number of units as quickly as possible to overthrow one's opponent in the least amount of time. This strategy is often used by comp stompers who use the zerg race to quickly amass zerglings, to quickly and humiliatingly overwhelm the computer. There are others, however, who in 2v2 or 3v3 games, rush together against one opponent at a time, singling out and defeating each opponent one by one.
UMS stands for Use Map Settings. These are typically used for novelty games or RPs. An example of a UMS map would be "Zergling Round-up", where the goal is to use one's firebats to herd zerglings into one's corral. Note that the UMS's power and popularity has also granted users the ability to create popular theme-based Starcraft games, such as a Dragonball Z or Neon Genesis Evangelion map that has Starcraft units, but the storyline is structured by the TV show and the units are given the same name.