Star Blazers is the American name for a Japanese anime titled "Uchuu Senkan Yamato" or "Space Cruiser Yamato". Unfortunately, Star Blazers is different from the original Japanese animation. Westchester Films, the American production company, edited out much of the violence during battle scenes. They thought that children watching might be afraid of so many deaths. They also "Americanized" characters, changing names and certain Japanese plot elements.
The first series, Quest for Iscandar aired in 1974 in Japan and 1978 in the US. In 2199, Earth is being assaulted with planet bombs from the distant planet Gamilon. The Earth was covered with radioactivity, and earthlings moved underground. Starsha, queen of the planet Iscandar, offered the Cosmo DNA to the people of Earth to remove the radioactivity. The series follows the Yamato's (Argo) journey to get to Iscandar and back to Earth within a year.
The second series, Comet Empire aired in the US from late 1978 to April 1979. It takes place in the year 2201, and Earth is now at peace and restored from radioactivity. After the Yamato is attacked at Jupiter, they receive a strange radio message. The message appears to be a woman who's name is Trelaina of Telezart. She warns Earth of the Comet Empire, a fort disguised as a huge comet that plans to conquer the galaxy. The series chronicles the struggle of the Yamato to get to Telezart, and then their battles with the Comet Empire to save Earth.
The third series, Bolar Wars aired from late 1980 to early 1981. The Galman Empire and the Bolar Federation are battling for universal domination. During a battle, one of their bombs goes astray and hits our solar system's sun. Earth will be consumed by the sun in less than a year, and the Yamato has the difficult task of finding a new planet. I would tell you more, but...I don't want to spoil it. The date is 2205, but later in another movie said to take place in 2203. Hey, who needs continuity?
There are many movies that are Star Blazers-related but aren't really in continuity. (OVAs) Yamato New Journey, Be Forever Yamato, Final Yamato, and Arrivederci Yamato.
The creator of Star Blazers also is famous for Galaxy Express 999,and The Harlock Saga.