There are two different pieces of work under the same name.
First one is a leaflet by famous Russian anarchist Mihail Bakunin written in 1866:
Second is a little bit longer piece of work by Russian nihilist Sergey Nechayev, although he was deeply influenced by Bakunin.:
Reading the second chapter "The Relations of the Revolutionary toward his Comrades" from latter Catechism one doesn't wonder why communists of The First International accused anarchists for hierarchy within revolurionary movement whilst anarchists claimed that communists wanted to enslave whole society that later materialized in the Soviet Union, especially under stalinism.
One can spot similarities with freemasonry, Bakunin told to be a member.