Ger.: Writing rules, n. See also: farce.
In 1901, Duden
(whose name graces THE German dictionary
) introduced the first "Rechtschreibungreform" (reform of the writing rules) after Bismarck
. Perhaps I should point out that because of Germany
which was largely characterized by many separate princedoms
which really weren't brought together until the 19th Century
, the language
is highly diversified. There are many
s, almost to the point of one per city
. (There are, of course, groupings of the dialects but in general the language is highly differentiated. I think I know 6 or more words for "bread roll
", all of which are exclusively use in different areas.)
Dispite the differentiation, there has always (meaning since the time of Martin Luther) existed a Hochdeutsch ("proper German") (I'm refering to Neuhochdeutsch for you philologues out there. I'm only going to go so far back...). When Luther wrote his translation of the Bible, one of the first largely distributed printed texts, it became the measuring stick for the entire language.
Duden, then, wanted to update and improve what Luther had begun. As far as I can tell, his reform worked - all dictionaries contained his rules and they became standard. Since, then, there have been two other attempts (these are the 3 major and, as far as I know, only Rechtschreibungreforme that have taken place.)
One in the 70s with not all too much pomp and circumstance. And, the current reform of the 90s, this last one giving being the prime example of "farce".
In Mannheim there exists the Institut für Deutsche Sprache (Institute for the German Language) which researches the language and with the backing of the politicians began in the late 90s a reform.
In 1997, the laws (note: laws!) were carried through and the reform became first optional until August 1, 1998 when it became mandatory. School books were reprinted, the newspapers switched, all official documents were converted.
And, as of August 1, 2000, the major newspaper of Germany, the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung is returning to the old writing rules. Why?
Because it just didn't work. Polls show that maybe 10 or 20% of the people even attempted to follow the law. The rest were just annoyed that the newspapers now spelled in a very weird way.
The laws, however, are still in place though the public debate on the issue is returning. When the laws were first being discussed in the early 90s, there was a good deal of opposition, but it didn't matter much. The politicians did what they wanted to.
Maybe this time, they'll listen: language cannot be regulated.