were escaped slaves who survived in the Jamaican hills in communities after running away from British slave colonies
until around 1800
. Maroons faught constantly with the British, and signed several treaties in order to maintain their freedom and autonomy from British rule.
Many consider maroons to be the first Rastafari
was considered by early Rastafari to be a messenger from God. Garvey was born into a Jamaican
In 1907 he began traveling and witnessed firsthand the plight of fellow blacks around the world. 1912 he sent to London, enrolled in college, and studied Afro-Egyptian history. By 1914
Garvey had returned to Jamaica and founded the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Assosiation
and the African Communities League, both designed to establish educational and industrial colleges for Jamaica
n Negroes. These associations were built using Booker T. Washington
’s Tuskegee Institute
as a model. In 1916
, Garvey traveled to America
and founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association.
is the centerpiece for the Rastafarian faith. Since there is no official Rastafari church, and Rastafarian beliefs vary widely, Rastafarians are most often described as people who believe that Haile Selassie was divine
or of divine nature.
Selassie was originally named Ras Tafari, however changed his name to King H.I.M Emperor Haile Selassie (H.I.M stands for "His Imperial Majesty) upon being crowned emperor of Ethiopia in 1930. Selassie claimed to be a direct descendent of David. He was the 225th King in a line of Ethiopian kings in unbroken succession from the time of King Solomon
Selassie was, upon his coronation as Emperor, viewed as a messiah
by many blacks in Jamaica because of a prophesy of Garvey
’s that said:
“Look to Africa, when a Black King shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is near.
using the Garvey-an ideal of migrating back to Africa, many Jamaicans created fake passports
(using the a picture of Selassie himself) in order to relocate to Ethiopia.
Leonard Howell was one of the first preachers in Jamaica to accept Selassie as the Living God
. By 1934 Howell had gained respect from many other Jamaicans, these people were the first true Rastafari. Later in 1934 Howell was arrested for selling over five thousand bogus passports sporting photographs of Haile Selassie
Upon his releasr from prison in 1941
Leonard Howell purchased an abandoned estate northwest of Kingston and founded “Pinnacle” a Rastafari community
of over sixteen hundred.
After many run ins with local police, in 1941 Howell is arrested again during a violent police
raid for cultivating marijuana
alongside yams on the Pinnacle farms.
Returning to from prison once again in 1943 Howell develops a corps of guardsman who grew their hair long and were known as “Ethiopian warriors” or “locksmen”, these were the first Rastafari who wore their hair in dreadlocks as a sign of divine strength.
In 1954 Pinnacle is raided again, and 163 of its members are arrested on marijuana charges, Howell is tried and later acquitted, however, his Pinnacle brethren refuse to re-accept him into the Pinnacle community, so he is forced to relocate to Kingston.
For years, Howell had run Pinnacle as if he were Selassie himself, and was quoted in a Jamaican Newspaper:
“I am Haile Selassie, neither you nor the government have any lands here.
Howell is confined in a mental hospital
Rastafarianism is based around Christianity
; however, has very little in common with any other sects of Christianity.
Rastafari have a strict diet which discludes: meats such as fish, eggs, salt. Sardines, ham, bacon, chicken, cheese,
white flour products such as bread, buns, cake, dumplings, gravy. Alcohol is also prohibited along with beverages such as milk, ovaltine, cocoa, coffee, and soda.
Rastafarian women are referred to as either “sisters” or “daughters”, regardless of age, appearance, marital status, or blood relation. Women are expected not to smoke (ganja), especially in public, however can often be found smoking in private.
Rastafari believe that marijuana is a holy herb and use the “divine-use theory” to justify it’s use. From Genesis 1:11-12
“Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yeilding seed, and the fruit tree yeilding froot after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth, and it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yeilding seed after his kind… and it was good.”
In earlier times, Rasta’s grew ganja for themselves, and bring the rest to marked for trade, and since marijuana is also illegal in Jamaica, this makes marijuana a “political herb” rather than the “divine herb” that the Rastafari believe in.
Holy Grounation is a yearly festival on April 21, celebrating the visit of Haile Selassie from Jamaica in 1966
. Grounation occurs on a large hill named Castle Kelly, outside Kingston
. Holy Grounation
is an affirmation of life through earth, and is a joyous festival, unlike Easter, which the Rastafari celebrate
in a somber manner.
Much of this information I found in a book entitled Rastafari: A Way of Life
by Tracy Nichols.
If you have any suggestions about this write up, please either leave a WU or /msg me.