The Rif is the mountainous coastal region in the north of Morocco. In colonial times it was under Spanish rule (except the international city of Tangiers), and was united with the larger French Morocco on independence.
Between 1920 and 1926 there was a Rif War, with Abd el-Krim (1882-1963) fighting for independence. A Rif Republic (also called Er Rif) was proclaimed in 1923. He was successful for a while, and almost drove the Spanish out completely by 1924. Then France and Spain united their forces under Marshal Henri Philippe Petain and defeated the Rifian tribes' revolt.
Also known as Riff. The local Berber language is called various things including Rif and Riff but noded under Tarifit.