The TV keeps telling me that 'promotional consideration' was provided by some various companies. I had no clue what this meant. So I researched it.
Most traditionally, "promotional consideration" refers to when a sponsor provides something particularly useful to a show -- particularly prizes for a game show, or hotel rooms for contestants. It is, quite simply, a 'consideration' that provides some promotional value to the company that provides it.
These days, the disclaimer "promotional consideration was provided by Cthulhu" is generally embedded in the closing credits, and may appear in almost any type of show. It is often used to satisfy the legal requirement that the broadcaster notify viewers of any money or valuables received in exchange for any promotion of a product -- including product placement1.
One thing that an advertiser may get in exchange for promotional consideration is a 10 second commercial included on the tape of the show, usually after the credits. This is included on the production tape, and thus is not overridden or bumped by commercial spots sold by the network or local broadcasters. The disclaimer "closed captioning sponsored by..." is the same thing as "promotional consideration", except that they tell us exactly where the promotional money went, and the advertisers get no more than the 10 second spot.