The Parent-Child Interaction Assessment-II (PCIA-II) is a structured observation procedure involving the videotaping of parents and 3- to 10-year-old children as they play together at an imaginary zoo. After the parent and child solve a series of conflicts at the zoo, they are shown their videotape and while the tape is paused they are interviewed regarding what each and the other are doing, thinking, feeling, and wanting. Data elicited are a half hour of videotaped interaction and approximately 15 minutes of projected material based on their answers to the questions. This measure is employed primarily in research with parent-child dyads to test hypotheses relevant to clinical psychology, psychiatry, and child development. Drs. Richard Holigrocki, Patricia Kaminski, and Siebolt Frieswyk developed the PCIA-II between 1995 and 1997 at The Menninger Clinic in Topeka, Kansas. Questions under investigation involve studying the influence of psychopathology of the parent or child on the other member of the dyad, the relationship between defenses and social behaviors, metacommunication about the reality or play of an interaction, internal representations, parenting styles, and cross cultural comparisons between samples collected in Hong Kong and the United States.

The Parent-Child Interaction Assessment-II Modifying Attributions of Parents (PCIA-II/MAP; Bohr, 2005; Bohr et al., 2008; Bohr & Holigrocki, 2005) intervention is a manualized cognitive-behavioral treatment that involves showing parents their PCIA-II recordings and working with them to change their attributions. The PCIA-II/MAP is being used with high risk families in Canada and USA.


Bohr, Y. (2005). Infant Mental Health Programs: Experimenting with innovative models. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26(5), 407-422.

Bohr, Y., Dhayanandhan, B., Armour, L., Sockett DiMarco, N., Holigrocki, R. & Baumgartner, E. (2008). Mapping parent-infant interactions: A brief cognitive approach to the prevention of relationship ruptures and infant maltreatment (The MAP method). Infant Mental Health Promotion: IMPrint, 51, 2-7.

Bohr, Y. & Holigrocki, R. J. (2005). PCIA-II/MAP Treatment Manual: Modifying Attributions of Parents intervention. Unpublished manuscript, York University and the University of Indianapolis.

Holigrocki, R. J. & Raches, C. M. (2006). Sequelae of child sexual abuse: A child and parent assessment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86(2), 131-141.

Holigrocki, R. J., Crain, R., Bohr, Y, & Young, K., Bensman, H. (2009). Interventional use of the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment-II enactments: Modifying an abused mother’s attributions to her son. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(5), 1-12.

Holigrocki, R. J. & Hudson-Crain, R.(2004). Victim-victimizer relational dynamics as maintained by representational, defensive, and neurobiological functioning. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 68(3), 197-212.

Holigrocki, R. J., & Kaminski, P. L. (2002). A structural and microanalytic exploration of parent-child relational psychopathology. Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 7, 111-123.

Holigrocki, R. J, Kaminski, P. L., & Frieswyk, S. H. (1999). Introduction to the Parent-Child Interaction Assessment. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 63(3), 413-428.

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