Or"tho- (?). [Gr. straight; akin to Skr. rdhva upright, vrdh to grow, to cause to grow.]
A combining form signifying straight, right, upright, correct, regular; as, orthodromy, orthodiagonal, orthodox, orthographic.
A combining form (also used adjectively)
, designating: (a) Inorganic Chem.
The one of several acids of the same element (as the phosphoric acids), which actually occurs with the greatest number of hydroxyl groups; as, orthophosphoric acid. Cf. Normal.
(b) Organic Chem.
Connection with, or affinity to, one variety of isomerism, characteristic of the benzene compounds; -- contrasted with meta- or para-; as, the ortho position; hence, designating any substance showing such isomerism; as, an ortho compound.
⇒ In the graphic representation of the benzene nucleus (see Benzene nucleus, under Benzene), provisionally adopted, any substance exhibiting double substitution in adjacent and contiguous carbon atoms, as 1 & 2, 3 & 4, 4 & 5, etc., is designated by ortho-; as, orthoxylene; any substance exhibiting substitution of two carbon atoms with one intervening, as 1 & 3, 2 & 4, 3 & 5, 4 & 6, etc., by meta-; as, resorcin or metaxylene; any substance exhibiting substitution in opposite parts, as 1 & 4, 2 & 5, 3 & 6, by para-; as, hydroquinone or paraxylene.
© Webster 1913.