ODD is a persistent pattern, lasting for at least six months of negative, hostile
, disobedient, and defiant
behavior in a child or teen.
- often loses temper
- often argues with adults
- often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules
- often deliberately annoys people
- often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior
- is often touchy or easily annoyed by others
- is often angry and resentful
- is often spiteful or vindictive
- is swearing or using obscene language
- has a low opinion of yourself
The cause of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is unknown at this time. However, it may be related to the child's temperament and the family's response to that temperament. It may also be genetic. And, there may be chemical imbalance or other problems in the brain that causes ODD.
The course of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is different for many people. It is a disorder of childhood that usually begins by age 8. Later in life, it can develop into Passive Aggressive Personality Disorder or Antisocial Personality Disorder. With treatment, reasonable social and occupational adjustment can be made in adulthood.
Stimulant medication is used only when oppositional defiant disorder coexists with ADHD. No research is currently available on the use of other psychiatric drugs in the treatment of oppositional defiant disorder. Parent management training focuses on teaching the parents more effective, specific techniques for handling the child's opposition and defiance. Also, Individual Psychotherapy and family therapy are used to treat ODD.