1. Babur - Born 1526, emperor 1483 to 1530.
    Also known as Babar, the founder of the Mugahl empire was born in Afghanistan and claimed several cities. He managed to capture Kabul and later conquered Delhi.
  2. Humayun - Born 1508, emperor 1530-1540 and 1555-1556.
    Also called Nasin-ud-din Muhammad, Babur's son was perhaps more interested in learning than defending his rule, and this cost him the throne as the Afghan leader Sher Khan defeated him in 1540. Fifteen years later Humayun managed to recapture Delhi, but unfortunately died a year later.
  3. Akbar the Great - Born 1542, emperor 1556 to 1605
    Through a respect and tolerance for non-Muslims, this ruler won the loyalty of all his people. In this way he managed not only to expand, but also to keep most of the Indian subcontinent.
  4. Jahangir - Born 1569, emperor 1605 to 1627 As a contrast to his father, Prince Salim who later became Emperor Jahangir is known to history as a weak king, indulging in his own pleasures and letting his wife and her relatives dominate in the domestic politis. The arts and sciences flourished under him, however, and the Mughal Empire expanded into Bengal, Ahmadnagar, and Mewar.
  5. Shah Jahan - Born 1592, emperor 1628 to 1658, died 1666
    Khurram was the name of Jahangir's third son, but after he crushed a revolt in the Southern states he received the title Shah Jahan and later assumed the throne. Most famous for building Taj Mahal, he was held captive by his own son Aurangzeb, who took over rule.
  6. Aurangzeb - Born 1618, empereror 1658 to 1707
    Aurangzeb had to fight his other three brothers for the throne, and later had them executed and his father imprisoned so that he could ascend at once. He took the title Alamgir, world-shaker. His persecution of religions other than Islam led to several revolts. He left behind him a weakend and fragmented empire, and is considered the last great ruler of the Mughal empire.
  7. Bahadur Shah I - Born 1679, emperor 1707 to 1712
    Aurangzeb's eldest son continued his father's military campaigns, which exhausted his funds as well as his support among the nobility.
  8. Jahandar Shah - Born 1661, emperor 1712 to 1713
    The grandson of Aurangzeb defeated three brothers to assume the throne, but once there his reign was not very long. After he had emptied most of the Mughal treasury he was overthrown by his nephew.
  9. Farrukh Siyar - Born 1687 1713 to 1719
    (alternate spellings: Farruk-Siar, Farrukhsiyar, Farukshiar...)
    The empire disintegrated into smaller states during the rule of this emperor, who was eventually deposed and killed by the Sayyid brothers, who were unhappy with the thanks they received for helping him claim the throne.
  10. Rafi-ud-Darajat - 1719 - Ruled for about four months until he died from a physical ailment.
  11. Rafi-ud-Daula alias Shah Jahan II - 1719 - His rule was about as short and cause of death the same as the previous ruler. Hmm.
  12. Mohammed Shah - Born 1701, emperor 1719 to 1748 Placed on the throne by the Sayyid brothers, he disposed of their power over the emperor, but was eventually killed by them. Nadir Shah invaded India at this time, including Delhi in 1739 when he massacred 150,000 residents.
  13. Ahmed - 1748 to 1754
    The son of Muhammad Shah had a jolly good time being manipulated and eventually deposed and by Wazir Ghazi-ud-Din.
  14. Alamgir II - 1754 to 1759
    Placed on the throne by the same Wazir, he was eventually murdered by him. In the winter 1756-57, Afghan ruler Ahmad Shah raided Delhi.
  15. Shah Alam - 1759 to 1806
    The son of Alamgir II was blinded and deposed by Afghan marauder Ghulam Qadir, but eventually regained the throne with help from the Maratha. He was considered brave, cultured and intelligent, and his harem was famous for its 500 women. He was proclaimed a pensioner when the British captured Delhi in 1803.
  16. Mohammed Akbar II - 1806 to 1837 - Considered a titlehead and pensioner.
  17. Bahadur Shah Zafar - Born 1775, emperor 1837 to 1857, died 1862.
    The last Mughal emperor of them all took part in an uprising against the British, but was defeated. He died in exile as their prisoner. The Mughal empire had finally fallen.

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