The United States Supreme Court
decided four cases named Miller v. California
- 389 U.S. 968 (1967)*, Do use of admissions made to an undercover agent planted in petitioner's jail cell constituted a violation of petitioner's constitutional rights to counsel and against self-incrimination
- 392 U.S. 616 (1968)*, The writ of certiorari is dismissed as improvidently granted
- 413 U.S. 15 (1973)*, A work which is 'obscene' must meet certain requirements before it can be banned. (This is the one which will be summarized below.)
- 418 U.S. 915 (1974)*, The appeal is dismissed for want of a substantial federal question
U.S. Supreme Court
MILLER v. CALIFORNIA, 413 U.S. 15 (1973)*
MILLER v. CALIFORNIA
APPEAL FROM THE APPELLATE DEPARTMENT,
SUPERIOR COURT OF CALIFORNIA, COUNTY OF ORANGE
Argued January 18-19, 1972 Reargued November 7, 1972
Decided June 21, 1973
Appellant was convicted of mailing unsolicited sexually explicit material in violation of a California statute that approximately incorporated the obscenity test formulated in Memoirs v. Massachusetts, 383 U.S. 413, 418* (plurality opinion). The trial court instructed the jury to evaluate the materials by the contemporary community standards of California. Appellant's conviction was affirmed on appeal. In lieu of the obscenity criteria enunciated by the Memoirs plurality, it is held:
1. Obscene material is not protected by the First Amendment. Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476*, reaffirmed. A work may be subject to state regulation where that work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest in sex; portrays, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law; and, taken as a whole, does not have serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. Pp. 23-24.
Vacated and remanded.
2. The basic guidelines for the trier of fact must be:
(a) whether "the average person, applying contemporary community standards" would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest, Roth, supra, at 489, (b) whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by the applicable state law, and (c) whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value. If a state obscenity law is thus limited, First Amendment values are adequately protected by ultimate independent appellate review of constitutional claims when necessary. Pp. 24-25.
3. The test of "utterly without redeeming social value" articulated in Memoirs, supra, is rejected as a constitutional standard. Pp. 24-25.
4. The jury may measure the essentially factual issues of prurient appeal and patent offensiveness by the standard that prevails in the forum community, and need not employ a "national standard." Pp. 30-34.
See Also: Landmark Case
, Sex-related Court Cases
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