# What?

A (somewhat hypothetical) method of measuring the technological advances of a species or civilization, based on how much energy they are able to use

# Who?

Soviet astronomer

Nikolai Kardashev proposed it in 1964, with three well defined levels, in his paper

*Transmission of Information by Extraterrestrial Civilizations*
# What's the scale?

- "
*A level near contemporary terrestrial civilization with an energy capability equivalent to the solar insolation on Earth, between 10*^{16} and 10^{17} watts." - Guillermo A. Lemarchand
- "
*A civilization capable of harnessing the energy radiated by its own star (...) with energy consumption at ≈4×10*^{33} erg/sec." - Kardashev
- "
*A civilization in possession of energy on the scale of its own galaxy, with energy consumption at ≈4×10*^{44} erg/sec." - Kardashev

# More numbers or metrics?

**Interpolation/extrapolation formula** by Carl Sagan (according to which Homo sapiens, with 17.54 TW of average consumption, ranked at 0.724 in 2012):

K = (log_{10} P - 6) / 10

- K is the Kardashev rating
- P is the power consumption in watts

**Type IV and V civilizations**: able to control an entire universe/multiple universes worth of energy - Michio Kaku
**Information mastery**: Civilization type A (10^{6} bits of information available to the civilization) through type Z (10^{31} bits) - Carl Sagan
**Microdimensional mastery**: mastery of increasingly smaller dimensions of matter, from manipulation of matter in larger-than-own sizes (buildings, type I-minus) through manipulation of elementary particles (quarks, leptons, type VI-minus) - John D. Barrow
**Civilizational range**: how widespread a civilization is, from Type I (across a planet), through type II (colonies in a stellar system) to Type III (across a galaxy) - Robert Zubrin

# Moar facts!

*BQ2016: 291*