Swiss Psychiatrist Carl Jung
developed a system of Psychological Types that he used in his Analytical Psychology
. It has become the basis for the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
The 'attitudes' Jung identified are introvert and extravert.
It should be noted that Jung used the terms introversion and extraversion to refer to where a person tended to direct their attention. In this context it does NOT refer to whether somebody is outgoing vs. shy. A shy and quiet "scientific" minded person may very well be considered an extravert.
Either of the two attitudes could display one of four functions: the rational (thinking-feeling) functions and the irrational (sensation-intuition) functions.
His type system is a matrix of the attitude x function:
- Extrovert thinking – Scientists
- Introvert thinking – Philosophers
- Extrovert feeling – Movie stars
- Introvert feeling – Musicians
- Extrovert Sensation – Businessmen
- Introvert Sensation – Art connoisseurs
- Extrovert intuition – Public relations people
- Introvert intuition – Mystics
Jung's personality matrix with modern MBTI equivalents*
| ISTJ, ISFJ | ESFP, ESTP | |
Sensing | | | |
|______________|______________| | Irrational
| INFJ, INTJ | ENFP, ENTP | |
Intuition | | | |
| ISTP, INTP | ESTJ, ENTJ | --
Thinking | | | |
|______________|______________| | Rational
| INFP, ISFP | ESFJ, ENFJ | |
Feeling | | | |
Jung's types correspondence to other typologies:
Jung Freud Berne Sagan Leary
Sensation Oral Natural Reptile Circuit I
Feeling Anal Adapted Mammal Circuit II
Thinking Latency Adult Human Circuit III
--- Phallic Parent --- Circuit IV
Intuition --- --- --- Circuit V-VIII
MBTI, the four humors and the four temperaments / Nolan Chart.
-S-P ------------------------ -S-J
Dionysian | Epimethean
Sanguine | Phlegmatic
Liberal | Conservative
* - There is some disagreement as to the correct placement of the introverted MBTI types in Jung's typology. Jung felt that Sensing and Intuition are always P (Perceiving) functions, while Myers felt that if the person is introverted then Sensing and Intuition are J (Judging) functions. The above chart represents the 'official' correspondencies.