Hamra national park
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One of the original nine national parks of Sweden designated by the government in 1909, Hamra national park is Sweden's smallest at only 0.28 square kilometers (0.11 square miles) located in the heart of the country, between the communities of Orsa and Sveg in an area known as Orsa Finnmark on the border of the provinces of Dalarna, Hälsingland and Härjedalen.
The park is a small, protected area of primeval, coniferous forest, entirely surrounded by bogs and a lake called Svansjön, Swan Lake. Because of its inaccessible location, the forest has remained virtually untouched by humans for some 300 years, although it has been affected by at least five different wildfires.
Despite the fires, there are still many aged trees with lichen and polypore mushrooms growing on them as well as naturally decaying remains of trees. The ground is mostly covered with heather and whortleberry, bog whortleberry and crowberry wire, but a small area in the park's west side features wood cranesbill, may-lily (false lily-of-the-valley), dwarf (or lesser) rattlesnake-plantain orchid (goodyera repens), and heart-leaved twayblade orchid (listera cordata). In the southeastern part of the park, there is a small tarn known as Näckrostjärnen, the Water lily Tarn, by which white beakrush and the carnivorous sundew can be found.
The fauna features mostly birds and beetles, of which the latter is one of the most remarkable features of the park. About 450 species thrive here thanks to the amount of naturally decaying wood. Bird species include willow tit, Siberian jay, and different species of titmouse, thrush, and woodpecker.
The area can be reached from a road to the southeast at Fågelsjö off national route 81 between Orsa and Sveg. The park itself is accessible by foot from a parking lot a short distance away. A bridged trail leads across a bog from the northeast into and through the park in a circle near the lake and the tarn.
Following is a translation of the conditions governing Hamra national park. I am neither a lawyer, nor a translator. This is for educational purposes only. Do not blame me if you get in trouble, yada, yada. The conditions translated into the text below apply only to Hamra. Other national parks have other conditions specified for them.
Public notice with conditions regarding HAMRA national park; SNFS (1987:15)
Supported by 4 § of the national park ordinance (1987:938), the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency announces the following conditions for the national park according to 5 § second section of the environmental protection act (1964:822).
Within the national park it is forbidden to
- stock items
- run cables through the ground or air
- construct trails or roads
- raise or expand buildings or other facilities
- conduct military training exercises
- conduct scientific investigations
- conduct business
- dig, excavate, fill, drill, chisel, paint, blast or otherwise damage ground and boulders
- break branches, cut down or otherwise damage living or dead trees, shrubs and bushes
- introduce plant or animal species
- pick or dig up plants
- collect or catch insects, fish or other animals or otherwise disturb animal life
- hunt or fish
- use vehicles
- make a fire
- practice horseback-riding
- bring unleashed dogs
- post a sign, poster or similar
- arrange orienteering checkpoints or marked trails
The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency can - if special circumstances are present - announce exceptions from given restrictions.
Without hindrance by the above prohibitions, it is permissible
- for staff authorized by the national park bailiff to conduct measures according to determined plan of maintenance
- to gather berries.
Passing into law
This public notice will pass into law on January 1, 1988.
Information synthesized from www.environ.se and www.x.lst.se.