Fred Vinson was the 13th Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court
. He was best know as an advocate
for the broad interpretation
of the power
of the federal government
over the state government
. He was one of the most outspoken enemies
of the State's Rights
Vinson made a lot of decisions in favor of the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amendment which helped minorities avoid exclusion from their rights by fucked up local and state laws.
The most famous case was Shelley v. Kraemer. A state court was refused the ability to enforce a private agreement that was made to sell property to only white people. He frequently sided with Thurgood Marshall and made quite a bit of legal progress for the concept of equal protection.