Form 10-Q is the quarterly report required by the US SEC for companies publicly traded on US exchanges. The 10-Q reports the general state of the company, including cash flow and income over the three prior months; reports for the second and third quarters must also reflect the prior three and six-month periods, respectively. In addition to financials, the 10-Q may cover other issues that are relevant knowledge at the time, concerning the company's health and outlook, such as legal issues and other challenges.
The 10-Q is generally an unaudited form; more concise, audited reports are completed in the yearly 10-K. As such, although there are obviously four financial quarters, only three 10-Qs are released a year, whereupon, at the end of the financial year, the company releases its 10-K.
10-Q reports are due the SEC no later than forty-five days after the end of the quarter. Companies can file for an extension, however, although such an action will often -- but not always -- be grounds for scrutiny, in the eyes of investors, concerned about anything that might prove itself to be problematic within the company.
Per karma debt, there are strict accounting rules and regulations that are to be followed, when filing the 10-Q. Of course, even after Sarbanes-Oxley, I'm sure there are still companies who will inevitably find loopholes...