The argument of the existence of God from the First cause is
one of the Five Ways
from Saint Thomas Aquinas
- There are events.
- Every event has a cause distinct from it
- Everything that we observe is an effect of some previous cause.
- Since there cannot be an infinite regress of events, there must be
some Uncaused Cause.
- God exists.
First off, (V) does not logically follow from (IV). It is not a
of (IV). It is quite possible for (V) to be
even if (IV) should happen to be true.
Why? God as defined by Saint Thomas Aquinas is the Christian God.
This being is in addition to being the creator of the world is omnipotent,
omniscient, and omnibenvolent.
There is nothing in the argument that
shows that these properties exist in the Uncaused Cause. Thus,
the inference from a first cause to the existence of God is invalid.
Secondly, the Birthday Fallacy. (I) and (II) imply that there is
at least one causal chain of events, and (III) tells us that all of them
have a first member. This first member, cannot have a cause, otherwise
it wouldn't be the first member of the chain. Thus each chain must have
a first member. It does not follow that every causal chain
must have the same first cause. This would be akin to claiming
that everyone who has a birthday has the same birthday.
(I) - (III) do not show that there is just one first cause.
Next, (I) - (III) are inconstant. These premises imply that
every causal chain has an uncaused cause. This means that some event
has no cause, which is in contradiction to (II). They cannot all