First let's define the "Dynastic" periods. The three well known periods of Egyptian
history are the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms. During the Predynastic period
Egypt was divided into Upper and Lower Egypt (Upper Egypt being the southern
half and Lower Egypt being the northern). The beginning of the dynastic period
was marked by the unification of these two Egypts, supposedly by King Narmer.
The palette of King Narmer
depicts Narmer uniting them. This is dated at
appoximately 2920 B.C. (remember, that all
of these dates are
approximate and they are B.C. unless indicated otherwise). That is when most
people recognize the beginning of the Dynastic periods. Remember that there is
still Egyptian art before it's known recorded history. Also, try searching for
pictures of these artworks on the internet so you can study them by yourself. Here
is a small "timeline" of how we divide the different periods of Egyptian History:
Early Dynastic (Dynasties I-III)|||2575|||Old Kingdom
Old Kingdom (Dynasties IV-VIII)|||2040|||Middle Kingdom
Middle Kingdom (Dynasties XI-XIV)|||1550|||New Kingdom
New Kingdom (Dynasties XVII-XX)|||712|||Late Period
Late Period (Dynasties XXV-XXXI)|||332|||Greek (Ptolemaic)
Pre-Dynastic to Early Dynastic
, Palette of King Narmer
Hierakonpolis, stone (slate), 3,000-2920 B.C. Depicts The unification of Egypt by
King Narmer and signifies the beginning of the Dynastic period.
, Panel of Hesire
, wood, 2650 B.C. The ka
image of a high official.
, Stepped Pyramid of King Djoser (Zoser)
(Imhotep, architect; 3rd dynasty), stone, 2630-2611 B.C. An older pyramid, based
on several mastabas stacked on top of eatch other; each one smaller than the
next. Before the smooth-sided pyramid was devised.
, King Djoser (Zoser)
, stone, 2681-2662 B.C. A
sculpture and ka
image of the king who the previous artwork (the
pyramid) was built for.
, The Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure
(aka The Great Pyramids at Gizeh
), (Greek names: Mycerinus, Chefren, and
Cheops), 4th dynasty, stone, 2551-2490 B.C. Three, old kingdom pyramids, all
smooth-sided. And with the innovation of a tomb located inside the actually
, The Great Sphinx
, sandstone, 2594-2520 B.C.
Originally suspected to be a statue dedicated
to Khafre but it was later
questioned because of it's current condition and position. It was later reconfirmed
that it is a statue of King Khafre's head on a lion's body.
, Khafre (Chefren)
, stone (diorite), 2594-2520
B.C. A ka
image of the King Khafre. He is shown in a regal position
perfectly representing the noble king's Ma'at.
, Menkaure (Mycerinus) and Queen
, stone, 2490-2472 B.C. A statue of king Menkaure (who's
pyramid is the third and smallest of the Great Pyramids at Gizeh
justifying his position as pharaoh as his wife (and sister) had the true birthright to
, wood, 2450-2350 B.C. A wooden
sculpture of a fairly rich, yet moderately unimportant
Egyptian person who had a
realistic sculpture of him done rather than an elaborate
beautiful one as the kings
had. This was acceptable among the non-officials.
, Seated Scribe
, painted limestone, 2450-2350
B.C. This is a more realistic limestone sculpture of one of the king's scribes.
Scribes were treated very poorly verbally
by the king
, but they were still
, Ti Watching a Hippopotamus Hunt
limestone, 2450-2350 B.C. (Mastaba of Ti, Saqqara)
, Nubian Soldiers
, (tomb of Mesehti), painted
limestone, 2450-2350. These were sculptures of Nubian Mercenary Soldiers hired,
literally, tp give the king a powerful
image and fight only if they really needed to.
The king was in a very weakened
state. Remember that each period had a decline
and literal fall until someone picked it up again.
, Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut
, (18th dynasty),
stone, 1473-1458 B.C. The queen who declared herself would most likely not want
to draw attention to herself, but queen Hatshepsut
built herself an elaborate
temple in the Valley of Kings.
, Ka Statue of Hatshepsut
, stone, 1473-1458 B.C.
Queen Hatshepsut not only built herself a temple
like a man but she also dressed
as Osiris (the god that kings were supposed to merge with) in this sculpture. She
is offering in the same ways as a king.
, Fowling Scene
, wall painting from the tomb of
Nebamun (?), Thebes, fresco secco (dry fresco), 1400-1350 B.C. This shows
Egyptians catching birds on the river using a mongoose
. This shows a
lot about how Egyptians hunted. It also has accurate
drawings of birds on it, so
we know what kind of birds lived around the NIle
at that time.
, wall painting from the tomb of
, fresco secco (dry fresco), 1400-1350 B.C.
, Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV)
, sandstone, 1355 B.C.
This is a bust of Akhenaton closely showing deformities in his face
, Relief sculpture of Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV)
painted limestone, 1355 B.C. This is gives a profile view of Akhenaton and you can
really notice his full lips.
, Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV)
, sandstone, 1355
B.C. This is a small but full sculpture of the king Akhenaton. This is slightly less
detailed as the bust but now shows the full deformities
of his body. They were
not necessarily disgusting deformities, but they really made him look like a
, Akhenaton and His Family
, stone, 1355 B.C.
This wall sculpture shows the king, his wife, and his six daughters in a playful
moment which was previously highly frowned upon in royalty
. But obviously,
Akhenaton thought they should just keep it real.
, Akhenaton and Nefertiti Make Offerings to
, stone, 1355 B.C. This shows Akhenaton and his wife giving offerings
to their one and only god Aton and in return, he blesses them and their kingdom,
Akhenaton being the one and only god on earth.
, The Daughters of Akhenaton
, fragment of wall
painting, fresco secco, 1355 B.C. This shows Akhenaton's daughters in a "modern"
radical realistic position
as one strokes the others face.
(from the tomb of Tutankhamen), gilded
wood inlaid with paste glass and semi-precious stones, 1323 B.C. This is an
impressive Sarcophagus that Howard Carter
found in his excavation of
Tutankhamen's tomb. There are three actual coffins
, one inside of the other, like
those creepy russian dolls
Mask (from the tomb of Tutankhamen), gold,
enamel, and semi-precious
stones, 1323 B.C. This is a funeral mask for king
Tutankhamen that shows him at his oldest age of 18. We know it was made after
his death because his false beard is braided
and that means that it was madea
fter he died.
Bead Bracelet (from the tomb of Tutankhamen),
gold, carnelian, faience
, glass beads
, 1323 B.C.
and Lunar Symbols
tomb of King Tutankhamen), gold
, lapis lazuli
, 1323 B.C. This elaborate jewelry in King
Tutankhamen's tomb uses two things to represent the sun
and the moon
two that represent the moon are the silver sphere at the top and the horns
it. Silver is the color representing the moon in it's sphere shape and the horns
represent Hathor the Celestial Cow goddess
. The sun is represented by the dung
beetle and the golden color of the beetle. The dung beetle represents the sun for
two reasons. The first is that the dung beetle rolls dung into a sphere which the
Egyptians saw as a representation of the sun. Also, dung beetles
are born in balls
of dung with no parent present. That's because their mother
laid her eggs
To the egyptians it looked like the beetles created themselves out of nothing. This
is how Amen
created himself and he later becae a sun god. That's how they
linked the two. The sun is a golden color, so they chose a gold beetle
represent the sun.
, Throne (from the Tomb of King Tutankhamen
covered with gold and inlaid with faience, paste glass, semi-precious stones, and
silver, 1323 B.C. This throne
effects on it. It has lion heads on each
arm and the legs of the chair are lion's legs. This is the classic form of two
animals of the same species flanking a person or high creature.
, Temple of Ramses II
, stone, 1290-1224 B.C. This
is the lavish temple that Ramses II (the Pharaoh
involved with Moses and the
enslavement of the jews) built to himself as he declared
himself a full-god before
death. It has four large statues
of himself in the front, dwarfing
sculptures of gods.
, Interior of Temple of Ramses II
, painted stone,
1290-1224 B.C Large pillar
s fill this temple because the stone above it were so
heavy. The pillars literally crowd
the temple and make it difficult for anyone to
walk around in it. Then again, nobody was really meant
to walk around in there.
, Wall Painting from the Tomb of Ipy
, fresco secco
, God of the Dead, painted limestone
, 1000 B.C.
Anubis was the Jackal-headed god of death. To me, he looks extremely
intimidating. The fact that he was a jackal was humorous
to me, considering that
most cultures make the jacka
l out to be a trickster
. I never thought of the god
of death as a trickster.
, Last Judgement of Hu Nefer
, painted papyrus,
Please note that the Greek
Periods of domain were listed as their
own periods but the Assyrians
and the Persians
also took over Egypt at one
Instead of writing a bunch
of nodes about each work that I could not sufficiently
describe, I have this list of the most famous
ones, that you could probably find