Hersey and Blanchard
Developed the model of situational leadership, which is used as the standard pattern for delegation in leadership writing. Ken Blanchard is also the author of the 'One Minute Manager' series.
This model sets out the styles that are appropriate for managing employees dependent on their level of skill and motivation. The style chosen may often vary from project to project as well as from staff member to staff member.
The styles are described briefly below:
Argues for radical decentralisation within organisations, and privatisation of public services. In recent years has worked on the management of the non-profit "third sector" corporation, especially in the United States. Drucker emphasises:
Drucker is the originator of the term "Knowledge Worker" and postulates a major shift in the balance of workers from blue-collar, generalised industrial workers to white-collar specialised knowledge workers with issues for both business and society arising from this trend.
Barry Posner and Jim Kouzes
Carried out in-depth research into the characteristics that make leaders credible and encourage their staff to follow them.
In short 4 main characteristics were identified as essential to leadership by more than 50% of those surveyed.
They said leaders should be:
Bennis is Distinguished Professor of Business Administration at the University of Southern California and the founding chairman of USC's Leadership Institute. He has written 18 books, and focuses on developing leaders and ethical leadership as the key to business success. He sees leadership as a function within a group and decries the 'myth of the lone ranger' He sees 'great groups' and teams as the way forward.
He identifies 4 'personal responsibilities' of leaders:
- Provide direction and meaning. They remind people of what's important and why their work makes a difference.
- Generate and sustain trust. The group's trust in itself--and its leadership--allows members to accept dissent and ride through the turbulence of the group process.
- Display a bias toward action, risk taking, and curiosity. A sense of urgency--and a willingness to risk failure to achieve results--is at the heart of every Great Group.
- Are purveyors of hope. Effective team leaders find both tangible and symbolic ways to demonstrate that the group can overcome the odds.
All these theorists stress the necessity for scrupulous honesty, integrity and ethical behaviour in leaders of the future.