In France, the Temple was a monastery in Paris, built during the 13th century. During the French Revolution, one of the towers of the Temple was used as a prison for Louis XVI and the royal family, from August 10, 1792 until their executions.
The name "Temple" was also applied to churches in Paris and elsewhere in France, after the Convention abolished Catholicism (October 14, 1793).
The following is a partial list of some of the more notable Temples in Paris:
1 See Theophilanthropy.
In modern French, temple can also mean a Protestant church. I am uncertain whether this usage has any relationship to the above. (Thanks to Albert Herring for reminding me of this.)
I am also reminded (by thbz - thanks!) that, naturally, temple can also mean other non-Catholic (e.g. Buddhist, Greek-Orthodox, Hindu) places of worship.