European Enlightenment Figures:
Samuel Johnson - A Lexicographer who did The Dictionary. This is symbolic of the enlightenment because before now there was no precise spelling of any word, and he represents the coming of standardization to the field of language.
David Hume - A major figure in the Scottish Enlightement. Wrote that miracles cannot exist, because of God's perfection.
Gibbon - Suggested that the fall of the Roman Empire is due to christanity in book: 'Decline and fall of the Roman Empire'
Descartes - "Cogito ergo sum" - "I think therefore I am." Also invented coordinate geometry and is attributed as the Father of modern Mathematics and Philosophy. Identifier of Deductive Logic.
Copernicus - Teacher of John Kepler. Disputed Ptolemy and stated that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
Issac Newton - Developed calculus and postulated the 'light-particle theory'. Also depicted the universe as a giant mechanism, and unified the theories of Kepler and Galileo into the 'Laws of Gravity'
Sir Francis Bacon - Began usage if Inductive logic, and worked with Leevenhook on the Microscope.
Boyle - Member of 'Royal Society' which is modeled off of the French 'Academy of Science'. This is important because it was the first ever regular meeting of European science. Also publishes quarterly journal, to keep other intellectuals up-to-date.
Christian Huygens - Developed Centrifugal and Centripical forces.
Adam Smith - Proposed a 'laissez-faire' capitalism in 'The Wealth of Nations'. Business took this policy seriously, but ignored his warning about usage of 'business legislation' for power.
Montesqueiu - Born as "Baron D'holbach", he betrayed the upper class and writes 'Spirit of the Laws' which proposes separation of powers for the first time, as well as a system of checks and balances.
Diderot - A champion of 'true democracy' and a critic of the monarchy. Also editor of "L'Encyclopedie" and writer of "Romeau's Nephew".
Jean Jacques Rousseau - Raised a lower class protestant. Began romanticism. The idea that feeling and emotion are equal to 'hard logic'. Wrote 'Emile' and 'Social Contract'. Also father of anarchism.
Voltaire - A champion of free speech and advocate of intellectuals. Claimed to be a 'defender of those who cannot defend themselves'. Voltaire symbolized the raw artificiality of the 18th century.
Priestly and Lavasoir - Pioneered modern Chemistry. Proposed a universal molecule, called 'phlogistan', similar to 'AEther', later. Lavasoir was on the commitee in charge of developing the metric system.
Hobbes - Stated that 'humans are machines in motion'. An enemy of capitalism and an advocate of dictatorship. Hobbes wrote 'Leviathan'
Leevenhooke - Built microscope with Bacon. Also a member of 'Royal Society'.
Richardson and Fielding - Wrote 'Pamela' and 'Shamela' respectively. The former is a novel about a girl named Pamela, and the latter is a spoof. These novels adhere to romanticism, and are comparable to today's typical sappy romance novel.
Kepler - Astronomer, astrologer, and mystic. Concluded that the planets must circle the sun in ellipses, and built the 'Laws of Planetary Motion'. A close friend of Galileo.
Galileo - Finally eradicated 'common sense' physics and replaces them with his more rational experiment-based physics. Later arrested by inquisition for writing "Starry Messenger" and forced to write a book denouncing everything he had ever theorized. Galileo completely contradicts Aristotle.
John Locke - Father of Liberalism. Wrote "Treatises on Government" and "Essay Concerning Human Understanding". Theorized 'tabula rasa' and fought for civil and religious freedom.