is one of the four fundamental forces
of the Universe
. The other three are the "strong
" and "weak
" nuclear forces
that hold the atomic nucleus
together, and gravity
Electromagnetic force is the force between charged particles that accounts for electricity and magnetism, and is carried by photons. The Electromagnetic force is responsible for all observed macroscopic forces, except for gravity. The Electromagnetic Force also holds electrons near a nucleus, and is responsible for pulling atoms together into molecules.
The Electromagnetic force is approximately 1/100th the strength of the strong force. It was recently discovered that the Electromagnetic force and the weak force are different forms of the same fundamental force. It is now dubbed the "electroweak force."
Electromagnetics has long been known to humans and was possibly discovered first by the Chinese who found that a magnetized needle always pointed North. In the 19th century, James Maxwell unified the ideas of electricity and magnetism into four equations known as Maxwell's Equations. These equations are the basis for understanding the entire gamut of electricity and magnetism.