One of the more fundamentally ponderable, and least testable questions of how the universe really works. You can test theories about space, about how particles and gravity work more easily, but they tend to be much more complex mathematics and ideas involved (which when said in relation to the concept of time, well, says a damn lot). This is an attempt at an informative 'discussion' of the ideas of the structure and nature of time, I consider it opinion, but then fact is (in my consideration) merely accepted opinion of demonstrated perception. (I punch you it hurts, hurt is not fun, punching is bad. Call this all nonsense, metaphysics, or insightful...I won't disagree.)

In Search of the Quantum:

First off we will be choosing our definition of Quantum here as, "The smallest amount, that which can be counted, or the most basic discrete indivisible part." In reference to time were talking about moments vrs, gradients.

Moment reality its fairly hard to swallow as the final say. In a moment reality, time exists in frames, where we, and everything, is like an animation, something is, or is not, located in a specific individual point in reality. This would require space to be pixelated, and while these pixels would not necessarily be square, they would certainly be ridged and without variation, or else you wind up with a moment reality inside a gradient reality, at some point to have a true moment, true quantum world, you have to reach a point of perfect crystalline rigidity. We talk about moments because a moment is a sample, the exact value of the exact point is this.

Of course in a gradated 'world' you can't get the exact value, of an exact point, you can only get the approximate value of a section of the gradient. A fractal is a mathematic equation which produces infinite detail, by this definition a gradient is arguably the simplest fractal, though it can also be represented by a line on a graph, but a line also represents an infinite set of sub points which do and don't exist.

You can call a point a quantum if you like, but that's not very useful because you can't measure a point, it is infinitely small, without any dimension, a line is not really made up of points, but rather points exist within it, the line simply is, and the points simply are, they are related, but somewhat independent (definition, not construction). This then begs the question is the entire line a quantum even though its divisible, maybe...Something can exist smaller than it, but its not really made up of any thing, but this is unique to the line, and as so many idealizations, not proof, just speculation (but isn't everything?)

Now we come down to perception, humans think in 4 dimensions, the point is the value, the line is the range, the plane is the picture, the depth the line, and time the point. This is of course one possible way of looking at the world, and the way I do, if I think about how I think about it.

I see a pen, the pen is at a point. The pen has a length, the length is the range. It sits in two planes, the plane of the table that runs perpendicular to me, and the plane of my sight. Depth is how far beyond me it lies, a line. And all this has happened in a point of time, but this point of time is a line, a range in which information was gathered, light traveled, brain processed. Hence our perception of the universe around us is fuzzy, we see what was, but not what was at a specific point, rather what was at gradually farther points back in time, what's more what we see we must interpret before our continuousness can be said to have seen it...this does not mean the interpretation needs to make sense, just that it needs to have occurred (was the apple food for thought?)

So now we will chose our definition of quantum physics as an attempt to measure the smallest part of the universe, when the smallest part is not measurable. (Sisyphus would be so proud...)

For the sake of discussion of many topics of time and space however, it is much easier to understand moments, as a moment can be accurately represented visually, whereas the captured gradient can only be represented totally in math, equations, and definitions, which obscure the actual point of an example.

Kinds of Time:

Rather than a total list of all of the combinations of these ideas, this will list the ideas them selves which are not necessarily complete, or exclusive, most of these can be combined.

Existant Time:

This treats time as existing only as a present, even if we can't perceive it in this purest sense. That is to say time is not treated as a permeable or real dimension in any sense, but the past still exists in the continuation of its effects. This assumes also that the universe always was, and always will be to maintain causality, since it can not exist in a loop to create its self.

Loop, and Spiral Time:

First to explain the set name, a loop is a circle, if you perceive a circle in two dimensions, it might be s spiral in four, the spiral might also form a loop in five, and so on, which takes you to the next section. The primary concept of looped time is that it is a cycle, something creates its self.

Closed loops: where nothing leaves or enters the cycle, generally big bang through big crunch repeat.

Output loops: nothing goes in, but something comes out. A man is his own father, and exists past the conception of him self.

Input loops: nothing comes out, but something goes in. A woman invents a time machine, goes back in time, goes with her self back in time again when she makes the time machine, repeats onto infinity.

Through put loops: Some, or only one, of the looping time travelers get board and start to exit the loop by not going back in time again, putting something into the universe either in greater quantity as what existed before the loop, or that has been touched by a greater quantity that conservation of energy denies.

Infinate Time

Infinite layers, of finite and or infinite layers, of etc... A causality evolution paradox. Before the universe was another different universe which created it, this was in turn created similarly, onto infinity.

Coherent, Gradated Time

Take your pick, indivisible, or infinitely divisible, its both. You can view an infinite range of smaller parts, but it has no root division. There is no definite present, only definite past and future.

Wave, Phase Time:

A gradient in which moment time exists, each moment exists as a separate entity, as the peak or phase of a wave, separated by an infinite (or potentially so) number of other phases, or peaks of other waves that are moments of other time streams. Personally I consider this one highly fanciful but it is at least interesting.

When science fiction talks about being phased their talking about being out of alignment with the wave, if your wave is totally out of alignment you do not occupy the same space as anything in the other wave, it is when you are not, you are when it is not, however if there is a blurring between is and is not across part of the wave there is still something (sort) of there from the perception of each wave inhabitant. The concept in science fiction being that extremely, or even infinitely light particles (such as well light) can be influenced by a phased object significantly enough to be noticed, but heavier objects simply don't receive enough influence to make a noticeable difference.

Why does being walked through when your phased not feel good? Well, its more than an emotional state, since light particles are effected, and heavier matter is made of lighter matter (presumably onto infinity). Two objects have just partially shared the same space, tiny or even massive sub atomic displacement occurs, the fact that you are a) alive, and b) not undergone heavy mass energy conversion should be considered consolation for a little discomfort. This is of course the idea behind phase weapons, creating a stream or ball of particles that exists slightly out of alignment with the universal wave, hence allowing it to try and occupy the same space as something else...and BOOM.

Fate, Free Will, Causality, and Uncertainty

As far as I can tell, the idea of multiple realities is the result of circular logic. Unstable atoms have a half life, a period of time in which there is a 50% chance it has decayed into a stable one. In groups it is expected that this chance will even out, if there are two atoms, in this period of time one will have split, one will remain intact. If you have only one it is not split or unsplit until you have checked its state. Hence you have a reality that is not known, in the equation an unknown is a set, and if you believe the universe is math, then wherever there is a set both must exist until proven otherwise.

Keep in mind that circular logic isn't necessarily wrong, the universe is, we know it is, despite the fact that logic says it shouldn't be, it is. Also keep in mind the principle of private universes, which is also very hard to deny. Everyone lives in a universe of their perception, this is not the universe of any one else, no matter how much similarity they bare. This is uncertainty of its own sort, proof only exists if you believe it.

So all things being considerable, we will consider that with so many infinities, an infinite amount more really isn't going to hurt us, and look for proof that these perceived variable possibilities are permeable. One thing you can wind up with is what is referred to as coiled dimensions. Let me explain my understanding of the idea. Particle a contains unperceivably the mark of all its past, and possibly future encounters, these marks form its present perception, all of time hence exists at one point in time, but not one point of space, creating a bizarre mixture of Existent, and Permeable time.

This allows the past to be perceived, or even changed perhaps without leaving the present, but do these marks represent only the particle, or is each mark related to the other particles that made it, since there is an infinite amount of space in any space? Then there is certainly infinite amount of room for infinite amounts of information, so then does the universe exist in each particle, or is each particle its own universe, giving one the infinite paths and combinations, which may or may not intersect in an alternate universe delusion.

Schrodinger said that as soon as one condition is perceived the others are instantly destroyed. I think destroyed is a strong word, obscured would seem more apropos, they remain in the haze of the unknown, along with all conditions that exist off of them, that is, they don't change into something more than the haze. Personal universes then can simply be argued as samplings of the fractal haze of infinity, but this won't, and can't, answer weather or not we are only part of it, or if we transcend it.

Finite Infinity, The Motion Paradox, and the Quantum Leap

A ball rolls down a hill. A ball rolls down half a hill. -> A ball rolls down an infinite fraction of a hill. A classic paradox, for any thing to move a distance, it must move half that distance. This says that any distance is divisible, and so every distance is infinite, nothing can move without moving at an infinite rate. (it occurred to me recently that it also has an infinite amount of time to pass these infinite distances, as we are dividing time as well, but see the next bit to see why its still an issue)

A large part of the paradox exists in two other rules, if you divide infinity by anything, its still infinity. An infinite amount of boxes fit in an infinite space. If you divide anything by its self, you get one. One infinite box fits in an infinite space. What does this leave you however? One what? What you started with, one infinity. Hence infinity is not reduced, only defined. I can point in opposite directions from my point to form a line, in both directions are infinity, yet these are two infinities, one is ahead one is behind, something can move at an infinite velocity towards me and reach me instantly, but will it also pass me? Is one infinity equal to two infinities? My answer is no.

One infinite line, is infinitely less than an infinite plane, one infinite plane infinitely less than an infinite volume, and so on. Infinity is a human concept, and a real thing, as is usually the case the two bare similarities and differences. There is a logic flaw between causality and the existence of the universe, yet by our experience we can say this paradox must be true because we exist, and causality appears to be true. The reality isn't flawed, we are finite, we have quantified infinity, and hence must accept that it can exist in quantity.

Another solution to how an object can cross the infinite space inside any finite space is that it can jump. A jump over the smallest measurable distance, which here is unmeasurable because it is infinitely small, is a quantum leap, or a leap over the quantified base divisions, it went from a to c but was never at b.