The sol in solar system.

Here are some statistics for this important stellar body. See the Anatomy of the Sun for more intimate details!

Age
At least 4.5 billion years, in present state.

Diameter
1.39 x 106 km

Volume
1.41 x 1025 m3 (1.3 million times the volume of the Earth)

Mass
1.99 x 1030 kg (or 333,000 times the weight of the Earth)

Energy output
3.86 x 1033 ergs/second or 386 billion billion megawatts

Chemical composition of photosphere (by weight, in percent)
Hydrogen - 73.46
Helium - 24.85
Oxygen - 0.77
Carbon - 0.29
Iron - 0.16
Neon - 0.12
Nitrogen - 0.09
Silicon - 0.07
Magnesium - 0.05
Sulfur - 0.01
Density (water=1)
Mean density of entire Sun
1.41 g/cm3
Interior (center of the Sun)
160 g/cm3
Surface (photosphere)
10-9 g/cm3
Chromosphere
10-12 g/cm3
Low corona
10-16 g/cm3

Temperature
Interior (center)
15,000,000 K
Surface (effective) of Sun
5800 K
Sunspot umbra (typical)
4240 K
Penumbra (typical)
5680 K
Chromosphere
4300 to 50,000 K
Corona
800,000 to 3,000,000 K

Rotation (as seen from the Earth)
Of solar equator
26.8 days
At solar latitude 30 deg
28.2 days
At solar latitude 60 deg
30.8 days
At solar latitude 75 deg
31.8 days

Source: http://solar-center.stanford.edu/vitalstats.html