Most Roman Weapons of the day were made of bronze or copper. Their War Technology
was incredibly advanced, as was their military
aclys - a kind of javelin
aculeus - a pointed implement, spike
ammentum - a thong or loop attached to a spear; a throwing-strap
ancile - a small figure-of-eight or waisted shield
arcus - a bow
aries - a battering ram, an engine for breaking down walls
arma - weapons; armor
ballista - a military engine for discharging stones and other missiles
caetra - a small, light shield
calamatus - an arrow
cassis - a helmet
catapulta - a machine for discharging bolts or other missiles
cateia - a curved missile weapon, perhaps a boomerang
cestrophendone - a catapult for discharging bolts
cipeolum - a small shield
clipeus - a round, usually bronze, shield
contus - a long spear, lance, or pike
copis - a short, curved sword
corax - a kind of siege-engine
cornus - a spear or javelin of cornel wood
corvus - a military engine, a kind of grapnel
cudo - helmet
culter - a knife
curis - a spear
cuspis - a spear, lance
dolo - a weapon apparently having a wooden shaft and short iron point
ensiculus - a small sword
ensis - sword
fala - a wooden siege-tower
falarica - a heavy missile weapon, discharged by machine or by hand
falx - a military implement shaped like a sickle, used to pull down walls or men on walls
ferrum - sword
fraxinus - a spear or javelin of ash
funda - a leather strap for hurling stones, a sling
gaesum - a gallic javelin
gladiolus - a small sword
gladius - a sword
gorytos - quiver for holding arrows
grus - a kind of siege-engine
hasta - a spear, javelin
hastula - a small spear
helepolis - a siege-engine, a kind of mobile tower
iaculum - a throwing-spear, javelin; missile
lancea - a long light spear, lance
lanciola - a small lance
ligula - a kind of short sword
loncha - a spear, javelin
machina - a siege-engine
machinamentum - a siege-engine
mataris - a gallic throwing-spear
mesancylum - a javelin with a thong for throwing
parazonium - a dagger worn at the girdle
parma - a small, usually round, shield carried by light infantry and cavalry
parmula - a small parma
pelta - a light, often crescent-shaped, shield
pilum - a trown javelin made with soft iron. Would bend once implanted in enemy shields, rendering the shield useless.
pugio - a short weapon for stabbing, a dagger
pugiunculus - a small dagger
rumex - a kind of javelin or hunting-spear
runa - a kind of weapon
sagitta - an arrow
scutulum - a little sword
scutum - a shield; strictly, the oblong, wooden shield used by heavy infantry
securix - an ax, battle-axe
sica - a dagger
soliferreum - a kind of javelin made wholly of iron
sparus - a kind of javelin
sybina - a kind of spear or javelin
telum - a spear
tragula - a spear fitted with a throwing-strap
venabulum - a hunting-spear
verutum - a short throwing-spear with a tapering metal head
They had tactics for both attack and defense.
Projectile Attack - They would halt advance, and form a wall of their sheilds. This was effective until their battles in Germania, where the Gaul's would simply charge and strike, with brute force, and cleave the soldiers through their shields.
Charging - Arranged in a phalanx, or rectangle, they would march steadily towards the enemy. This formation was not very effective.
Enemy Shielding - Romans had long wooden spears with iron spearheads known as pilum's. They would throw these into enemy shields, causing the spearhead to bend once in the enemy shield. Then the enemy shield would hinder mobility, and be cast away.
Intimidation - Battle gear. The Romans wore long cloaks, feathered helmets, and sparkling weapons. This was a fearsome site to see.
Fatigue - Roman soldiers at the front of the phalanx would fight for 15 minutes or so. Then, the line behind that one would move up, and replace the tired soldiers.
Attrition - Most Roman sieges were won by attrition. If the siege took too long, though, siege-towers were built.
Training - All Roman soldiers were jack-of-all-trade men. They could perform any military task.
Unity and Loyalty - Morale and loyalty were sky high. Each soldier was brother to the next. If they ran, they were abandoning their family.
All these things led to the Romans conquering almost all of the known world at that time.