WINE is an attempt to reimplement the Windows API on a Unix-like platform. I'm not sure what license it's under, but it goes along with free software and opensource concepts, I'm sure. If not LGPL then probably BSD-type.

Although it stands for "WINE Is Not an Emulator", that is debatable. From a technical point of view, it is not emulation because all code and hardware access is done 100% natively. But it really does have emulator-like functionality, and could be considered an emulator by some.

Long before current sanitizing methods were known, people developed a simple and effective way to ensure the safety of the water that they had available to them. They routinely added the fermented juices of a variety of fruits to the drinking water. The alcohol contained in these juices was strong enough to kill harmful organisms, and leave people with clean water to use. The production and use of wine, which is documented as far back as biblical times, continued for centuries as a very powerful tool against waterborne illnesses. Over time, traditions formed around its use, and it became a permanent fixture in human culture.

Today, due to modern technology, wine is no longer necessary to keep us healthy, however, its use and production continues. The making of wine, once merely a necessity, has become an art form. Good wine, valued for its taste, age, and origin, can run upwards of $500 a bottle. Like diamonds, the subtleties of the wine and how it is made give it its great value.

Wine, although it can be made from any fruit, usually begins its life as a grape. Red and green grapes are carefully grown in vineyards under strict conditions. Harvest usually begins in late summer, between the months of July and September. The grapes are sorted by sweetness, size, color, and ripeness and then sent to the wine producers to be processed. Weather and other natural occurrences such as diseases may affect a whole crop, and consequently, a whole batch of wine. Therefore, the date and location of the wine, or the vintage, can be used to judge the quality, even if the process in which the wine was made remains the same.

Once the grapes arrive at the wineries, the real work begins. The grapes are crushed and turned to a pulpy juice called must. Traditionally, the grapes would be stomped on to extract this juice. Although some wineries still employ this method, most use special grape presses to do the dirty work. After the must is extracted, the winery must decide which type of wine is to be made.

There are three main types of non-sparkling wines, white, red, and pink (blush) wine. White wines are created using the filtered must of white grapes, leaving the wine clear and colorless. Red wine is made using unfiltered must from red grapes. The skins and stems left in the must impart chemicals called tannins in the wine that give it its distinctive flavor. Blush wines are made from the filtered must of red grapes, and share qualities of both red and white wines.

The alcohol contained in wine is created by yeasts, which ferment the sugars found in the grapes. Several types of yeast can be used, each giving the wine a unique flavor, but the most common yeast is from the Saccharomyces genus. Wild bacteria and yeasts can cause undesirable flavors, spoilage, or vinegar to be produced, therefore, wine is usually sterilized using sulfur compounds before being inoculated with yeast. In addition to the yeast, many wine producers add beneficial bacteria to the wine to change the flavors.

To ferment properly, the wine is placed in large stainless steel vessels and allowed to sit at room temperature for a period of two to five weeks. During this time, the sugar is converted to alcohol by the yeast. If all the sugar in the must is fermented, then the wine is known as a dry wine. Likewise, sweet wines are made by stopping the fermentation process early by the addition of distilled spirits. These wines still contain sugar and therefore have a sweeter taste. Both dry and sweet wines are commonly produced and sold. The resulting alcohol content in the wine after fermentation is known as the heaviness of the wine. Heavy wines contain a higher percentage of alcohol, and thin wines, a lower. Generally, wines have between seven and fourteen percent alcohol content, although some ‘fortified’ wines may have up to 30 percent due to the addition of brandy.

After the fermentation process is finished, the dead yeast and other impurities are filtered from the wine, and it is moved into large wooden barrels and allowed to mature. This process may take several weeks or (in the case of very expensive wines) up to several years. During this time, the chemicals found in the wood change the wine’s flavor. The type of wood used for the barrels as well as the temperature and length of time the wine is allowed to mature all contribute to the flavor and quality (i.e. price) of the wine. Once mature, the wine is pasteurized to remove any microorganisms, and bottled.

It is a common misconception that good wine must be aged after it is bottled. The truth is that most wine is drunk ‘young’, or within a year or two of its vintage. While some wines ‘mature’ and become better with age, others will not, and should be drunk soon after bottling. Most of the wine that is allowed to age is red wine, although there are varieties of ‘ageable’ white and blush wines. Red wine contains tannins, which, over time, precipitate out of the wine and become sediment. This causes the bitterness of the wine created by the tannins to diminish and the natural fruit flavors to become more apparent.

In order to properly age wines, certain storage procedures must be followed. Temperature is a major consideration in storage, as high temperatures or rapid fluctuations in temperature may cause undesired chemical changes in the wine. Cool and stable temperatures, around 55 degrees Fahrenheit, will contribute to the proper storage of the wine. Light will also damage wine, therefore, colored wine bottles and a dark storage area are desired. In low humidity, the corks may shrink and let air react with the wine, consequently, a humidity of around 60 percent is also desired. If properly stored, white and blush wines may be kept up to ten years, and red wines can be aged for thirty or more.

Due to the complexity of its production, there is an endless variety of the types of wine that is produced. Each type has its own intricacies and subtleties that add to its value and taste.

Wine is still an important feature in our society. It is part of our traditions as well as a luxury for many people, whether it be to complete a delicious meal, to toast a special occasion, or just to enjoy the quality and craftsmanship of a good wine.

Winemaking, going back thousands of years, may be one of the oldest occupations and art forms. The talent, work, and dedication involved in making a good wine is immense and, like paintings or music, should always be appreciated, so, raise a glass and enjoy!

For selecting wine see: wine guide.

Almost all of the aromas and flavors of wine come from chemicals called phenols in the grapes used to produce it, though barrel aging can also have a significant impact. This writeup contains the names, locations, and qualities of the grapes commonly used to make red and white wines.

Red wine grapes

The most important ones

  • Cabernet Sauvignon--This is the king of red wine grapes. Its high tannin content and low yield make it it suitable for dark, complex, cellarable wines. The cabernet sauvignon is the dominant grape in wines made in the Médoc region of Bordeaux. It is also popular in California, Chile, Australia, South Africa, and New Zealand.
  • Merlot--This grape has fewer tannins than the cabernet, which makes it less durable. Its softer nature has its own appeal though. It is usually blended with the cabernet in the Médoc to add complexity and balance. In the eastern regions of Bordeaux such as Saint-Emilion and Pomerol it is the dominant grape and makes world-class wines. California and Chile are other top producers.
  • Pinot noir--the grape of red Burgundy. Some winemakers in Oregon are also testing their luck with it. The pinot noir is almost never blended with other grapes. Its wines are low in tannins and a bit pale in color. The best example I've had was chalky and mineral-laden.
  • Syrah--considered the most noble grape of the Rhone. The syrah is also very successful in Australia, where it is called the shiraz. Wines made from the syrah are tannin-rich, spicy, dark, and a little bitter.
  • Zinfandel--The zinfandel is successful almost exclusively in California. It makes zesty reds that are far better than their white zinfandel counterparts.

The next most important ones

  • Cabernet Franc--A small amount (5-15%) of this grape is added to most Bordeaux reds to enhance aroma. I have had a cabernet franc-dominated California red wine that was every bit as complex as most high-quality cabernet sauvignons, but such wines are rare.
  • Gamay--the grape of Beaujolais. It is fruity, simple, and pleasant. The gamay isn't considered very noble but Beaujolais is quite popular arnd fun to say.
  • Grenache--A grape that, along with the southern Rhone region, is gaining popularity. It yields peppery, somewhat harsh wines.
  • Nebbiolo--This grape is used to make the world-famous Italian reds of Barolo and Barbaresco. It yields incredibly long-living, tannic wines.
  • Sangiovese--the grape of Italian Chianti. It makes relatively simple wines that wine snobs disparage.
  • Tempranillo--an outstanding and unusual grape of the Rioja and Ribera del Duero regions of Spain. This grape can yield a whole range of weird flavors like tar, petroleum, tobacco, and various minerals. I think it's underrated.

Less noteworthy red wine grapes

White wine grapes

The most important ones

  • Chardonnay--The chardonnay is easily the most popular white wine grape. It often tastes like citrus and smoky oak and cream due to barrel aging. Most experts consider the best examples of chardonnay to be those of white Burgundy, but the chardonnay makes successful, world-class wines in California and the rest of the world also.
  • Riesling--This grape is famous for its use in the partly sweet wines of Alsace and Germany. It usually is pretty tart and acidic.
  • Sauvignon Blanc--I think this grape is growing in popularity as people look for alternatives to chardonnay. The best examples are from the central Loire region of France--Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé. It is also used in Bordeaux sweet wines like those of Sauternes. New Zealand seems to churn out very good sauvignon blanc wines these days. The grape can taste a bit vegetal and tart. Oaked Californian sauvignon blancs are often referred to as fumé blancs, a term coined by Robert Mondavi.

The next most important ones

  • Gewürztraminer--pronounced guh-vort-strah-mee-ner. This grape makes fun wines, if only because of the name. Wines made from this grape have a very distinct smell of flowers and lychees. The best examples are definitely from Germany and Alsace.
  • Sémillon--a noble Bordeaux grape used in sweet wines. The most famous example is Chateau d'Yquem in Sauternes, which uses 80% sémillon. The thin skin of the sémillon makes it vulnerable to the noble rot that results in luscious sweet wines.

Less noteworthy white wine grapes

WINE stands for, alternately, WINE Is Not An Emulator or WINdows Emulator. It acts as a wrapper over win32 system calls on i386 platforms, allowing win32 apps to run on X Window / Linux systems.

SETUP

In Gentoo, this can be done simply by doing sudo emerge wine. On other systems, it's more complex:

  • Get the source code with the following commands:

     
    $ export CVSROOT=:pserver:cvs@cvs.winehq.com:/home/wine 
    $ cvs login 
    Password: cvs 
    $ cvs -z3 co wine 
    
  • Compile:

    Go into the new wine/ directory and run tools/wineinstall. This compiles WINE. Follow the onscreen instructions.

  • Configure:

    The default configuration file usually has some problems, prime amongst them the CDROM and floppy paths. Edit your ~/.wine/config file to correct them. I recommend adding a drive linking to / as well.

  • Invocation:

    This is the simplest part: Simply run wine program.exe. Note that you can use either a UNIX path or a virtual windows path.

Does it work?

On the whole, yes. There are many bugs, though. For example, Starcraft runs in single-player mode only. Multi-player locks up. Also, wine is incomplete, and therefore has many bugs. Generally, older software works best, and Microsoft software worst. Games typically have the worst performance, due to wine's poor support for DirectX.

Wine (?), n. [OE. win, AS. win, fr. L. vinum (cf. Icel. vin; all from the Latin); akin to Gr. o'i^nos, , and E. withy. Cf. Vine, Vineyard, Vinous, Withy.]

1.

The expressed juice of grapes, esp. when fermented; a beverage or liquor prepared from grapes by squeezing out their juice, and (usually) allowing it to ferment.

"Red wine of Gascoigne."

Piers Plowman.

Wine is a mocker, strong drink is raging, and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise. Prov. xx. 1.

Bacchus, that first from out the purple grape Crushed the sweet poison of misused wine. Milton.

⇒ Wine is essentially a dilute solution of ethyl alcohol, containing also certain small quantities of ethers and ethereal salts which give character and bouquet. According to their color, strength, taste, etc., wines are called red, white, spirituous, dry, light, still, etc.

2.

A liquor or beverage prepared from the juice of any fruit or plant by a process similar to that for grape wine; as, currant wine; gooseberry wine; palm wine.

3.

The effect of drinking wine in excess; intoxication.

Noah awoke from his wine. Gen. ix. 24.

Birch wine, Cape wine, etc. See under Birch, Cape, etc. -- Spirit of wine. See under Spirit. -- To have drunk wine of apewine ape, to be so drunk as to be foolish. [Obs.] Chaucer. -- Wine acid. Chem. See Tartaric acid, under Tartaric. [Colloq.] -- Wine apple Bot., a large red apple, with firm flesh and a rich, vinous flavor.<-- winesap? --> -- Wine bag, a wine skin. -- Wine biscuit, a kind of sweet biscuit served with wine. -- Wine cask, a cask for holding wine, or which holds, or has held, wine. -- Wine cellar, a cellar adapted or used for storing wine. -- Wine cooler, a vessel of porous earthenware used to cool wine by the evaporation of water; also, a stand for wine bottles, containing ice.<-- (1980's) a drink composed of approximately equal parts of wine and some carbonated beverage (soda). Also called California cooler. --> -- Wine fly Zool., small two-winged fly of the genus Piophila, whose larva lives in wine, cider, and other fermented liquors. -- Wine grower, one who cultivates a vineyard and makes wine. -- Wine measure, the measure by which wines and other spirits are sold, smaller than beer measure. -- Wine merchant, a merchant who deals in wines. -- Wine of opium Pharm., a solution of opium in aromatized sherry wine, having the same strength as ordinary laudanum; -- also Sydenham's laudanum. -- Wine press, a machine or apparatus in which grapes are pressed to extract their juice. -- Wine skin, a bottle or bag of skin, used, in various countries, for carrying wine. -- Wine stone, a kind of crust deposited in wine casks. See 1st Tartar, 1. -- Wine vault. (a) A vault where wine is stored. (b) A place where wine is served at the bar, or at tables; a dramshop. Dickens. -- Wine vinegar, vinegar made from wine. -- Wine whey, whey made from milk coagulated by the use of wine.

 

© Webster 1913.

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