The Host-to-Host Transport layer merges network layer connections and provides a reliable packet delivery mechanism. Services segment, reassemble, and merge data from upper-layer apps, provide end-to-end data transport, and establish a logical connection between the sending and receiving host. This layer is responsible for reliable communication between end nodes as well as the maintenance and termination of virtual circuits. The transport layer also provides mechanisms for sequencing, multiplexing upper-layer apps, and session establishment. It provides transparent data transfer and fault recovery and ensures data integrity via flow control.

  • The recipient sends an acknowledgment to the sender when it receives the segments
  • Any unacknowledged segments are retransmitted
  • Segments are sequenced into their proper order upon arrival
  • A manageable data flow is maintained to avoid congestion and data loss.

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