Improving an aspect of a system by optimizing the subsystems. Whilst this initially might seem like a good idea, some systems where the synergy between the subsystems is important - say, for instance, a pack of predators - this might have a detrimental effect on the overall efficiency of the system. The goal of each individual in the pack is to maximize its return on investment - lots of food for a minimum of hunting. This can be achieved by any individual by not participating in the hunt and eating the kills of the other members in the pack. However, if every individual in the pack followed that strategy, no one would get any food - Kant's Categorical Imperative in full swing.

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