(as defined by the USADA and outlined in their athlete guide)
Stimulants
  • Amfepramone
  • Amphetaminil
  • Amineptine
  • Amiphenazole
  • Amphetamine
  • Bambuterol
  • Bemegride
  • Benzphetamine
  • Bromantin
  • Caffeine (more than 12 mcg/ml in urine)
  • Carphedon
  • Chlorphentermine
  • Clobenzorex
  • Clorprenaline
  • Cropropamide
  • Crotethamide
  • Desoxyephedrine
  • Ephedrine (more than 10 mcg/ml in urine)
  • Etafedrine
  • Etilefrine
  • Etamivan
  • Etilamphetamine
  • Fencamfemine
  • Fenfluramine
  • Fenetylline
  • Fenproporex
  • Formoterol
  • Furfenorex
  • Heptaminol
  • Isoetharine HCL
  • Isoproteronol
  • Meclofenoxate
  • Mefenorex
  • Mephentermine
  • Mesocarb
  • Metaproterenol
  • Methamphetamine (crank, crystal meth, desoxyn, met-ampi, speed)
  • Methyl-Benzoylecgonine (cocaine, crack, ecognine)
  • Methylenedioxyamphetamine (ecstasy, XTC)
  • Methoxyphenamine
  • Methylephedrine
  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
  • Morazone
  • Nikethamide
  • Norfenfluramine
  • Norpseudoephedrine
  • Parahydroxyamphetamine
  • Pemoline
  • Pentetrazol
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phenmetrazine
  • Phenylephrine (systemic)
  • Phenylpropanolamine
  • Phentermine
  • Pholedrine
  • Picrotoxine
  • Pipradol
  • Prolintate
  • Propylhexedrine
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Pyrovalerone
  • Reproterol
  • Salbutamol
  • Salmeterol
  • Selegiline
  • Strychnine
  • Terbutaline

    This lists is given in the USADA Guide published December 2000, and may not be comprehensive.

  • Biological Basis of Action

    Dopamine regulates pleasure and it is manufactured in nerve cells within the ventral tegmental area. It is released in the nucleus accumbens and the frontal cortex. The short term effects of stimulants are increase wakefulness and physical activity coupled with a decreased appetite, which may appeal to some people as it is seen as a "quick fix" for the psychological aspect of obesity. Stimulants damage nerve terminals in dopamine-containing areas, potentially leading to irrational mood swings and unpredictable temperament. It can also raise the internal temperature to dangerous levels which can lead to convulsions and, in extreme cases, could potentially be fatal.

    Two things happen when any stimulant is taken at high levels for a period of time. Firstly, the brain runs out of neurotransmitters, resulting in what is known as a "crash". Ever-increasing levels of stimulants are required to have the same effect, as neurotransmitters are destroyed, until finally the crash marks the exhaustion of all neurotransmitters. The second is that the temporary increase in stimulant intake confuses the control mechanisms. As the levels of cocaine, amphetamin etc. in the brain drop, neurotransmitter levels rapidly return to normal, or somewhat below.

    Addiction

    The long term effect of stimulants is addiction, which is a chronic relapsing disease. That is to say, it may be impossible to ever attain total "cleaness", and the body continues to demand supplies of the stimulant long after the person would no longer consider themselves a user.

    Salience of the drug becomes an increasingly important aspect of the abuser's life, it is all-encompassing. The individual experiences inner turmoil and conflict in day-to-day life as a result of the addiction. They also become more secretive and withdrawn. There is strong possibility of relapsing after withdrawal.

    Withdrawal

    Typical withdrawal symptoms from amphetamines include:

    However such symptoms vary from person to person and this list is by no means exhaustive. Some people find withdrawal relatively painless and only experience a few minor symptoms. Others may suffer from long-term or permanent afflictions. It is impossible to predict how one person may react differently from another.

    Effects on the individual and society

    The age of women applying for stimulant-related rehab treatment has shifted such that over half of those applying are over thirty-five. There are now more female cocaine addicts, but cocaine treatment admissions decreased between 1993 and 1999. The increased number of parental addicts makes it seem more likely for their children to follow their example. The heroine treatment admission rate has increased in central and fringe areas, and in metro areas. The injection drug admissions for 15 – 25 year olds has increased. Injection drug users tend to use drugs for many years before entering a substance abuse treatments system. In 1999 58% substance abusers had had at least one prior treatment episode. 24% of stimulant abusers have 5 or more prior treatment episodes and are homeless. Men and women have similar proportions of repeat treatment admissions, and likewise race seems to have no influence in relapse probability.

    Effects on the individual and society

    People continue to take stimulants as the addiction becomes both psychological and physical. Whether the individual continues to abuse the substance depends on their personality and the influence from peers and parents etc; there are a large number of social factors involved. Admissions with five or more prior treatment episodes are likely to have psychiatric problems in addition to substance abuse difficulties. Substance abuse disorders in tandem with mental disorders are known as “dually diagnosed,” and are increasingly regular in modern Britain.

    Personality

    A person may turn to stimulants or drugs in general due to low self esteem. They may consider their life boring, so therefore risk taking -- such as drug abuse -- plays an important role in their life. They may be easily led, following the example of their peers into the world of drugs. Depression may also cause them to turn to drugs because of the euphoric state they receive when taking stimulants. The amount of drugs required to receive this sense of euphoria increases as tolerance to the drug and its effects is cumulative and therefore, after several years, dependence is total and the amount of stimulant required is large. The personality of the individual may be changed, such as the appearance of psychotic behaviour, aggression and amnesia.

    Social influence

    Access is the main social factor affecting the onset of the addiction in those liable to it, and the availability of drugs is on the increase in most areas of Britain. Children who feel unsupported by their parents may turn to drugs as a cry for help or low social background. Drug abuse contributes to Hepatitis and HIV transmissions.

    Apologies if this write-up seems a little pejorative or judgemental of those who use stimulants. It is intended as a purely scientific analysis of the stimulants, from a chemical and psychological point of view.

    Stim"u*lant (?), a. [L. stimulans, p.pr.; cf. F. stimulant. See Stimulate.]

    1.

    Serving to stimulate.

    2. Physiol.

    Produced increased vital action in the organism, or in any of its parts.

     

    © Webster 1913.


    Stim"u*lant, n. [Cf. F. stimulant.]

    1.

    That which stimulates, provokes, or excites.

    His feelings had been exasperated by the constant application of stimulants. Macaulay.

    2. Physiol. & Med.

    An agent which produces a temporary increase of vital activity in the organism, or in any of its parts; -- sometimes used without qualification to signify an alcoholic beverage used as a stimulant.

     

    © Webster 1913.

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