A Christian heresy, or non-standard Christian belief, monophysitism is the view that Jesus was wholly divine, rather than possessing both a human and a divine nature. Most forms of Christianity, including Roman Catholicism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and most Protestant churches, hold that Jesus had two distinct natures, both truly human and truly divine, being the son of God made flesh.
The doctrine's leading early proponent was Eutyches (c.378 AD - c.452 AD), archimandrite in Constantinople, hence the name of Eutychianism for one form of this belief. The Council of Ephesus in 431 AD, and the Council of Chalcedon in 451 AD declared against monophysitism. Emperor Zeno, leader of the Eastern Roman Empire in Constantinople, issued the Henoticon (482 AD), which tried to include monophysitism in standard church doctrine, and the position of monophysitism varied as disputes continued for the next 100 years, until the two sides were irrevocably divided. Following on from the division, various monophysitist churches were established as separate entities: the Coptic Church in Egypt, the Jacobite Church of Syria, the Armenian Church and the Abyssinian Church.
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