state founded with the capture of Jerusalem
in 1099; it finally fell to the Mameluke
s in 1291. The first ruler, Godfrey of Bouillon, took the title of Defender of the Holy Sepulchre
; subsequent rulers styled themselves king
. They were:
- Godfrey of Bouillon 1099-1100
- Baldwin of Bouillon 1100-1118
- Baldwin of Bourg 1118-1131
- Melisend and Fulk of Anjou 1131-1143
- Melisend alone 1143-1152
Melisend was the daughter of Baldwin II, and Fulk her husband shared the throne she inherited. She was deposed in favour of their son. There are some out there who may delight as much as I do that there really was a Queen Melisend of Jerusalem.
- Baldwin III 1152-1163
- Amalric 1163-1174
- Baldwin the Leper 1174-1185
- Baldwin V 1185-1186
- Sibyl and Guy of Lusignan 1186-1190
Queen Sibyl of Jerusalem? Another one for the trivia fans. She was the daughter of King Amalric, and Guy was her husband.
- Guy of Lusignan alone 1190-1192
- Isabel I and Conrad of Montferrat 1192
Isabel was another daughter of Amalric; after deposing the widower Guy she reigned briefly with her second husband, then with her next two as they came and went.
- Isabel I and Henry of Champagne 1192-1197
- Isabel I and Aimery of Lusignan, King of Cyprus, 1197-1205
- Mary 1205-1210
- Mary and John of Brienne 1210-1212
Although the death of Mary, daughter of Isabel I and Conrad I, ended John's rights to the throne of Jerusalem, he remained as regent for their daugher Isabel until her marriage in 1225, then reigned as Emperor of Constantinople 1231-1237: not the ancient Byzantine Empire, but the Crusader state cruelly torn from its heart in 1204.
- Isabel II 1212-1225
- Isabel II and Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, 1225-1228
- Conrad II 1228-1254
Conrad succeeded his mother upon the throne of Jerusalem on her death, while his father continued to be Holy Roman Emperor until his death in 1250. Conrad his son succeeded him as King of the Romans, the dignity that preceded the imperial coronation, but was not elevated to emperor.
- Conradin 1254-1268
- Hugh of Cyprus 1269-1284
Hugh and his two sons after him were also the kings of Cyprus.
- John II 1284-1285
- Henry II 1285-1291
Centuries later the title "King of Jerusalem" was still nominal
ly borne by European kings. Philip II
of Spain took it to his marriage with Mary I
of England, so that she was, in name and fantasy at least, Queen Mary II of Jerusalem from 1554 to 1558.
I cannot say exactly how the line of claim went from there. The kingship of Jerusalem passed to the Dukes of Savoy, who became Kings of Italy. The last king Umberto II, who reigned for a month in 1946 and died in exile in 1983, had the styles of King of Italy, Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, and Armenia. He was succeeded as Duke of Savoy by his son Vittorio Emmanuele.
On the other hand, the Emperors of Austria, who reigned until 1918, also claimed the title of King of Jerusalem.