In a group of people (i.e. a team), two of the key aspects that emerge are roles and communication patterns. R. F. Bales, in his 1970 book Personality and Interpersonal Behaviour, deals with the formation of these properties extensively. The most distinctive feature of his methodology is the use of interaction process analysis, or IPA, a system for scoring types of communication. It consists of twelve categories, and trained observers categorise every behavioural act into one of these categories. It's a rather visual affair, so I think the best way to describe it is visually. Yes, you've guessed it, an ASCII art diagram follows.

   +===========================================+
  /|1  Shows solidarity, raises other's        | <-----------\
 | |   status, gives help, rewards             |             |
 | +-------------------------------------------+             |
 | |2  Shows tension release, laughs, jokes,   | <---------\ |
A| |   shows satisfaction                      |           | |
 | +-------------------------------------------+           | |
 | |3  Agrees, shows passive acceptance,       | <-------\ | |
  \|   understands, concurs, complies          |         | | |
   +===========================================+         | | |
  /|4  Gives suggestion, direction, implying   | <-----\ | | |
 | |   autonomy for others                     |       | | | |
 | +-------------------------------------------+       | | | |
 | |5  Gives opinion, evaluation, analysis,    | <---\ | | | |
B| |   expresses feeling, wish                 |     | | | | |
 | +-------------------------------------------+     | | | | |
 | |6  Gives orientation, information,         | <-\ | | | | |
  \|   repeats, clarifies, confirms            |   | | | | | |
   +===========================================+   a b c d e f
  /|7  Asks for orientation, information,      |   | | | | | |
 | |   repetition, confirmation                | <-/ | | | | |
 | +-------------------------------------------+     | | | | |
 | |8  Asks for opinion, evaluation,           |     | | | | |
C| |   analysis, expression of feeling         | <---/ | | | |
 | +-------------------------------------------+       | | | |
 | |9  Asks for suggestion, direction,         |       | | | |
  \|   possible ways of action                 | <-----/ | | |
   +===========================================+         | | |
  /|10 Disagrees, shows passive rejection,     |         | | |
 | |   formality, withholds help               | <-------/ | |
 | +-------------------------------------------+           | |
 | |11 Shows tension, asks for help,           |           | |
D| |   withdraws out of field                  | <---------/ |
 | +-------------------------------------------+             |
 | |12 Shows antagonism, deflates other's      |             |
  \|   status, defends or asserts self         | <-----------/
   +===========================================+

The capital letters refer to emotional areas:
A - positive reactions
B - attempted answers
C - questions
D - negative reactions

The lowercase letters are problem areas:
a - problems of orientation
b - problems of evaluation
c - problems of control
d - problems of decision
e - problems of tension-management
f - problems of integration

Using evidence from this system, Bales, along with P. E. Slater, found huge differences between the communications patterns made by the two most talkative members of the groups they studied. These findings, published in their 1955 collaborative paper Role-differentiation in small decision-making groups, were that leadership has two roles. The person who tended to be seen by other group members as the group leader, was oriented primarily towards attaining the team's goals, and thus scored very highly in area B (attempted answers). The other talkative person tended to be warm and friendly, scoring higher in area A (positive reactions).

To explain this pattern, Bales and Slater suggested that the first individual, the task leader, is, because of his or her goal-oriented behaviour, a source of tension for the group, and may be resented. This necessitates the presence of the second individual, the socio-emotional leader, who is less active but better liked.

Leadership thus seems to be centred not around a leader but two complementary roles. Later research in the same area has agreed with this theory, with the qualifier that the extent of the differentiation between the two roles increases as the group's assigned task becomes less rewarding.

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