A family of languages in West Africa, mainly in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Côte d'Ivoire. The family is also known (especially in French) as Voltaic, from the Volta River. (Burkina Faso was formerly called Upper Volta.) The name Gur is derived from the fact that several languages in the group begin with this syllable: Gurma, Gurmanchema, Gurenne, Gurunsi.

The main national languages in the Gur family are Moré in Burkina Faso (the language of the majority Mossi people), Senufo in Guinea, Dagbara in Ghana, Dagaari in Ghana and Burkina Faso, and Lobi in Burkina Faso.

Gur is a branch of the Niger-Congo superbranch of the Niger-Kordofanian phylum. The (over-precise) Ethnologue database distinguishes 100 Gur languages. The name was proposed by Krause in 1895 and accepted by Westermann in 1927 as part of his classification of what he called West Sudanic languages, and then by Joseph Greenberg. In 1989 Bendor-Samuel removed the Dogon dialect cluster from the Gur group and elevated to a separate group of equal status.

Typology: SVO or SOV, postpositional, GN, NA.

(Also "GUR") Abbreviation for "Ground Under Repair" in a golfing context. Greenkeepers will mark off areas of the course as G.U.R. (often with white paint) where new turf has been laid, or where damaged grass is in need of a rest.

If your ball lands in an area of GUR, you may pick up the ball and:

  • place the ball at the nearest point of relief, if the area of GUR is on the green
  • drop the ball at the nearest point of relief, if the area of GUR is in a hazard (e.g. a bunker)
  • drop the ball within one club's length of the nearest point of relief, if the area of GUR is anywhere else.
In all cases, the ball must not end up any nearer the hole than where it landed in the GUR.

G.U.R.(Ground Under Repair in a golfing context) does not exist within the boundaries of a hazard. To get relief, you must take the penalty associated with hitting the ball in a hazard, unless you are in a bunker, in which case you much play the ball as it lies. The exception to this is casual water, which does not exist in a water hazard, but does exist in a bunker. In which case you must drop the ball at the nearest point of relief no closer to the hole while keeping the ball in the bunker. Or, you can take a one stroke penalty and remove the ball from the bunker and drop it within one club length no closer to the hole.

Refer to sunpigs' write-up for the correct procedure on taking relief from GUR.

Also, remember that you can always play the ball as it lies(with the exception of out of bounds and a nature reserve).

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