The Convention rests on three basic principles and contains a series of provisions determining the minimum protection to be granted, as well as special provisions available to developing countries which want to make use of them.

(1) The three basic principles are the following:
(a) Works originating in one of the contracting States (that is, works the author of which is a national of such a State or works which were first published in such a State) must be given the same protection in each of the other contracting States as the latter grants to the works of its own nationals (principle of "national treatment")3.
(b) Such protection must not be conditional upon compliance with any formality (principle of "automatic" protection)3.
(c) Such protection is independent of the existence of protection in the country of origin of the work (principle of the "independence" of protection). If, however, a contracting State provides for a longer term than the minimum prescribed by the Convention and the work ceases to be protected in the country of origin, protection may be denied once protection in the country of origin ceases3.

(2) The minimum standards of protection relate to the works and rights to be protected, and the duration of the protection:
(a) As to works, the protection must include "every production in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever may be the mode or form of its expression" (Article 2(1) of the Convention).
(b) Subject to certain permitted reservations, limitations or exceptions, the following are among the rights which must be recognized as exclusive rights of authorization: (c) As to the duration of protection, the general rule is that protection must be granted until the expiration of the 50th year after the author's death. There are, however, exceptions to this general rule. In the case of anonymous or pseudonymous works, the term of protection expires 50 years after the work has been lawfully made available to the public, except if the pseudonym leaves no doubt as to the author's identity or if the author discloses his identity during that period; in the latter case, the general rule applies. In the case of audiovisual (cinematographic) works, the minimum term of protection is 50 years after the making available of the work to the public ("release") or-failing such an event-from the creation of the work. In the case of works of applied art and photographic works, the minimum term is 25 years from the creation of such a work5.
(3) Countries regarded as developing countries in conformity with the established practice of the General Assembly of the United Nations may, for certain works and under certain conditions, depart from these minimum standards of protection with regard to the right of translation and the right of reproduction.

The Berne Union has an Assembly and an Executive Committee. Every country member of the Union which has adhered to at least the administrative and final provisions of the Stockholm Act is a member of the Assembly. The members of the Executive Committee are elected from among the members of the Union, except for Switzerland, which is a member ex officio. On January 1, 1997, the Executive Committee had 30 members.

The establishment of the biennial program and budget of the International Bureau-as far as the Berne Union is concerned-is the task of its Assembly.


1 It is to be noted that WTO Members, even if they are not party to the Berne Convention (e.g., Indonesia), must comply with the substantive law provisions of the Berne Convention, except that WTO Members not party to the Berne Convention are not bound by the moral rights provisions of the Berne Convention.
2 It is to be noted that developing and "transition" countries may, at least until 2000, delay the application of most of the obligations provided for in the TRIPS Agreement (Article 65). Naturally, States party to the Berne Convention cannot delay the application of their obligations provided for in the Berne Convention.
3 Under the TRIPS Agreement, the principles of national treatment, automatic protection and independence of protection also bind those WTO Members which are not party to the Berne Convention. In addition, the TRIPS Agreement imposes an obligation of "most-favored-nation treatment," under which advantages accorded by a WTO Member to the nationals of any other country must also be accorded to the nationals of all WTO Members. It is to be noted that the possibility of delayed application of the TRIPS Agreement mentioned above does not apply to national treatment and most-favored-treatment obligations.
4 Under the TRIPS Agreement, an exclusive right of rental must be recognized in respect of computer programs and, under certain conditions, audiovisual works.
5 Under the TRIPS Agreement, any term of protection which is calculated on a basis other than the life of a natural person, must be at least 50 years from the first authorized publication of the work, or-failing such an event-50 years from the making of the work. However, this rule does not apply to photographic works, or works of applied art.


For a list of States party to this convention, see here.

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