Abduction: In the study of logic, a name for inference to an explanation from an observation, next to deduction (inference to a consequence from a premise) and induction (inference to a generalization from a particular). Coined by Charles Sanders Peirce, who also called it retroduction and hypothesis.

It presumably gets its name from forcing alien statements into a theory.

In the fields of philosophy and logic, abduction is the inference of an explanation from a set of observations.

When using inductive logic you can predict what might happen next based on what has happened before. ("The sun came up yesterday, and the day before, and the day before -- I bet it will rise tomorrow too.") But you can't explain why it happened. For example, if I find that when flipping a coin heads comes up 60% of the time I can say, using induction, that in the next hundred throws heads will probably come up about 60 times because one side of the coin is slightly heavier than the other. This is a hypothesis; the creation of an explanation for induced data.

So, how do you justify these sorts of explanations? So far we have found only one way--called abduction. Under abduction, the way to justify the hypothesis is that it is the best explanation we have to explain the data. This could be considered a problem, because we don't seem to have a logical method of scientific advancement. Any hypothesis is generated by creativity, not logic. They are justified by logic, but a theory doesn't come about because the laws of formal logic dictate it -- it comes about because we came up with (e.g., imagined) a lot of possible stories to explain it, and then tested them.

For example, the rules of logic and math do not require us to believe that the earth revolves around the sun. We came up with multiple stories to explain the solar system, and it turns out that the one that works the best is the one with the sun at the center. There could be a set of empirical data that would disprove this. And given all the data we had when we made this theory, we could still have missed the fact that the Earth revolves around the Sun if some bright person hadn't figured out that that was a possibility. It was necessary for someone to have a creative, inventive thought for us to figure this out. No amount of deductive logic alone could have brought us to this conclusion.

Scientific theories, then, are based not on deduction but on induction -- opening the way for Skepticism, since you can only be 'probably right'.

Contents of box: 72 cards, 4 rules cards. 1d6 required to play. The rules are printed on a series of four cards, on both sides. Optimized for 4 players, but more can play with the addition of more card decks.

Abduction is part of a new trend of standalone, non-collectible card games; a trend I give an enthusiastic "attaboy" to Eden Studios for supporting (I won't digress from this review by ranting about why I hate the collectible card game market, we don't have the time). Eden Studios is a diverse bunch, having also released Conspiracy X (a RPG) recently, reviewed at http://www.gamingoutpost.com/cgi-bin/vault/jump.cgi?ID=7. The subject of Abduction is unique and somewhat droll - players step in to the role of victims - specifically, hapless victims of alien Abduction. Players (let's call 'em "Abductees" hereafter, in keeping with the rules) start the game in the center of a weird Alien mothership. Thereafter, the victory condition is to get off of the ship by being first to arrive at the exit. The other players are doing their level best to beat you to the punch, and WILL thwart you time and again.

The medium is cards, of course, and that's how the game plays itself out. There are three card types: Locations (actual rooms on the mothership, placed on the table to build the map), Items (Nifty Alien stuff lying around that helps you defend yourselves), and Events (all the messed up stuff that happens to you on your quest to Exit the Mothership). Events are usually played vs. another player. A map of the mothership is "built" by placing Location cards next to each other within the constraints of the physical layout of the card (to put it simply, doors have to match doors). Each Location has a numerical code depicted on it to depict how hard it is to find Items there, and sometimes a Power that needs to be activated (i.e., a special circumstance that occurs in that location). To use a Magic metaphor, Events are similar to Interrupts. Events target other players to give the player using the Event card some sort of advantage. Sometimes an Event is a defense against another Event (such as an Alien Patrol), and sometimes an event helps you find an Item. In almost every instance, the play of a card in Abduction is either in response to or to bring on a very limited series of outcomes. You Search for Items because Items (usually) help you Evade (run away from the bad guys). You Play Events to (usually) make another player Evade a situation (usually, a group of Aliens). If you fail at something, the outcome is also pretty standard: Blacking Out. When you Black Out, you lose your hand and "come to" on the Holding Cell card, the next turn.

The Play Sequence is extremely simple and highly interactive:

1. ACTIVE ABDUCTEE DRAWS HAND UP TO FIVE CARDS
2. ACTIVE ABDUCTEE PERFORMS AN ACTION (MOVE, SEARCH, PLACE LOCATION, PLAY EVENT, ACTIVATE POWER, PASS or DISCARD)
3. EACH NON ACTIVE ABDUCTEE, IN CLOCKWISE ORDER, MAY PLAY ONE EVENT CARD.
4. REPEAT STEPS 2 AND 3.
5. REPEAT STEPS 2 AND 3.

(Pass to left, proceed around the table in a counterclockwise rotation).

The card art is interesting; I'd call it "Dark Green Gothic." The illustrations are outstanding, very much in keeping with Abduction's themes. I particularly admired the idea of including little standup Abductee characters that you get to cut out and stand up. These were well drawn and done for laughs. One of them is a cow! I ended up using little plastic HO scale figures, just for a nice 3D effect, but I didn't have to. The only criticism I have of Abduction's artwork is that it is somewhat repetitious. One location looks pretty much like another, making them hard to find sometimes. The color choice is superb, however. There's something about glowing green on black that just screams "Alien." Must be all that Alien Head schlock I'm starting to see in comic book stores and novelty shops.

Eden Studios is supporting Abduction in style, maintaining a FAQ, mailing list, variants, card pictures and more on their Abduction website, http://www.edenstudios.net/abduction/.

So much for the peripherals, now for the main event. In terms of game design, Abduction plays quickly and well. I admire a game that plays to completion in twenty minutes or less - they have to be harder to design than a game that takes days or weeks.

Abduction plays very well as a competitive race game - the design favors a "cutthroat gameplay" approach, not unlike some forms of multiplayer Magic: The Gathering. Be warned, this is not a game that fosters cooperation and teamwork. The likeliest event, after repeated games, is a group gang-bang of whoever is in the lead. Personally, I don't care for this kind of thing as a steady diet; if you just want to have a little non-serious competitive fun, then Abduction is the game for you. I haven't played Abduction nearly enough to have it loose the Shock of the New yet, but gazing into my crystal ball, I can predict a time where Abduction might grow stale after repeated plays. Since the game is a standalone design, there are only so many factors and combinations that come into play before the novelty wears off. I have no idea if Eden Studios plans any expansion sets for Abduction. I could easily envision an expansion set of more locations, items and events (especially events that result in something other than a black out) without hurting the designer's intent.

## The Verdict

In conclusion, Abduction is a fun, non-serious game that should appeal to the light-hearted. I strongly recommend it for a "between more serious stuff" game, in the same category as, say, The Three Stooges Card Game, GROO, or Guillotine. If you (and your gaming group) can handle a light hearted game with backstabbing competitiveness, then give Abduction a try; you won't regret the investment. If you're the kind of gamer that takes every attack on your position as a personal insult, maybe you should pass this one by. Hmmm.. maybe you should take up meditation while you're at it.

Abduction

Abduction may be considered as a public crime and a matrimonial diriment impediment. Viewed as a crime, it is a carrying off by force, physical or moral, of any virtuous woman, or even man, from a free and safe place to another place morally different and neither free nor safe from the captor's power, with intent to marry her or to gratify lust. Abduction considered as a matrimonial Impediment is a violent taking away of any woman whatsoever, chaste or unchaste, from a place free and safe to a morally different place, and there detaining her in the power of her abductor until he has coerced her into consenting to marry him. Abduction as a crime is of wider scope than is the impediment, inasmuch as the former includes man-captors and intent to gratify lust, both of which are excluded from the scope of the impediment. On the other hand, the impediment is of wider import than the crime in as far as it includes all women, chaste as well as unchaste, while the crime excludes the corrupt. This difference arises from the fact that the State aims to suppress the public crime as a menace to the safety of the commonwealth, while the Church cares, directly and immediately, for the freedom and the dignity of the Sacrament of Marriage. Abduction is often divided into Abduction by Violence (Raptus Violentiae) and Abduction by Seduction, or Elopement (Raptus Seductionis). The former is when (a) a woman evidently reluctant, and not consenting either to the flight or to the marriage, is forcibly transferred with a matrimonial intent from a secure and free place to a morally different one and there held under the abductor's influence by force, physical or moral, i.e. threats, great fear, or fraud equivalent to force, as it is a well-known axiom that "it is equal to be compelled to do a thing as to know that it is possible to be compelled to do it", (b) a woman enticed by fair words and fraud and deception consents to go with a man for other reason than matrimony from one place to another where he detains her by force or fraud equivalent to force, in order to coerce her into a marriage to which she objects; (e) a woman who, although she had already consented to a future marriage by act of betrothal, vet strenuously objects to Abduction, is carried off violently by her betrothed or his agents from a free and safe place to another morally different and there detained until she consents to marry him. Some deny, however, that the raptor in this case is guilty of Abduction, saying that he has a right to his betrothed. He has, indeed, a right to compel her to fulfil her engagement by public authority, not, however, by private authority. His carrying off of the woman against her will is the exercise of private authority, and therefore violence to her rights. Abduction by Seduction (Raptus Seductionis), or Elopement, is the taking away from one place to another, by a man, of (1) a woman of age or under age who consents to both the flight and the marriage without consent of her parents or guardians; or (2) a woman who, although she refuses at first, finally, induced thereto by caresses, flattery, or any allurement, not however equivalent to force, physical or moral, consents to both flight and marriage without knowledge or consent of her parents or guardians. Abduction by seduction, as defined is held by Roman law to be Abduction by violence inasmuch as violence can be offered to the woman and her parents simultaneously, or to the woman alone, or to the parents and guardians alone; and in the elopement, while no violence is done to the woman, violence is done to the parents or guardians. On the contrary, the Church does not consider violence done to parents, but the violence done only to the parties matrimonially interested. Hence, elopement, or Abduction by seduction, does not induce an impediment diriment. Pius VII, in his letter to Napoleon I (26 June, 1805), pronounced this kind of Abduction no Abduction in the Tridentine sense. The Church considers it, indeed, a wrong against parental authority, but not a wrong to the abducted woman.

After the publication of his decree in the twelfth century, this milder discipline was generally observed and met with the approval of many popes. Finally, Innocent III ("Decret. Greg.", lib. V, tit. xvii, cap. vii, "De Raptoribus") decreed for the universal Church (especially aiming at the perpetual prohibition by the particular councils) that such marriages might take place as often as a prior reluctance and dissent on the part of the woman should change to willingness and consent to the marriage, and this (according to the common interpretation) even if the woman was in the power of the captor at the time she consented. This decree practically did away with the impedient impediment of Abduction, which was merged into the impediment of vis et metus. The Innocentian law continued to be the ecclesiastical discipline up to the sixteenth century. The Council of Trent introduced an entirely new discipline. To guard the liberty and dignity of marriage, to show its detestation of a horrible crime dangerous alike to the purity of morals and the peace and security of society, and to bar the criminal from gaining the result intended by his crime, the Fathers decreed: between the abductor and abducted there can be no marriage, as long as she remains in the power of the raptor; but if the abducted, having been separated from the abductor, and having been placed in a safe and free place, consents to have him for a husband, let her marry him; yet, notwithstanding, the abductor with all his advisers, accomplices and abettors, are by the law itself excommunicated and declared forever infamous, incapable of acquiring dignities, and, if they be clerics, deposed from their ecclesiastical rank. Furthermore, the abductor is bound, whether he marries the abducted or not, to dower her with a decent dowry at the discretion of the judge (Concil. Trid., Sess. XXIV, vi, "De Reform Matrim."). This law was to take immediate effect, requiring no promulgation in individual parishes. Such also is the law in the Oriental Churches (Synod. Mont. Liban., 1736, Collect. Lacens., II, 167; Synod. Sciarfien. Syror., 1888). The difference between this law and that of the Decretals (Innocent III) is evident. According to the Decretals, the woman's consent, given even while she was in the raptor s power, was deemed sufficient. The Council of Trent does not consider such consent of any avail, and requires consent given after the woman has been entirely separated from the control of the raptor and is dwelling in a place safe and free from his influence. Should she desire to marry him, the marriage may be celebrated, the priest having first obtained permission from the bishop (according to some) whose duty it is to testify to the cessation of the impediment and that the dowry prescribed by the Council has been made over and is subject to the sole use and discretion of the abducted. The general law of the Church does not require the aforesaid bishop's permission, but individual bishops can and do make laws to that effect. The Council of Trent by this law safeguarded the freedom of marriage (1) on the part of the man, by allowing him to marry the abducted woman, and (2) on the part of the woman, by protecting her from being coerced while in the abductor's power into a marriage against her free will and consent. This impediment of Abduction (raptus) is one entirely distinct from that of vis et metus. The latter entirely looks to the freedom of consent; the former, to the freedom of the place where true consent must be elicited. Of ecclesiastical origin, this impediment is temporary and public, and does not bind two unbaptized persons unless the civil law of their country invalidates such marriages. It does, however, govern the marriage of an unbaptized abductor with a Catholic abducted woman, and vice versa.

Amidst the conflicting opinions of canonists and moralists as to whether Abduction by seduction, Abduction of a betrothed, Abduction of a minor against the will of her parents, or the Abduction of a man by a woman, induces the impediment or not, it is necessary to remember that this impediment is of Tridentine origin, and therefore the Council of Trent was sole judge of the necessary conditions; that the Roman or any other civil law or any prior ecclesiastical law had nothing to say in the matter; that the question under investigation was the impediment, not the crime, of Abduction; and that in rebus odiosis, which this is, the words of the Council of Trent must be strictly adhered to and interpreted. Four elements are essential in an Abduction in order to induce thereby the Tridentine diriment impediment, to wit: (1) a woman; (2) change of locality; (3) violence; (4) matrimonial intent.

(1) Any woman, whether moral or immoral, maid or widow, betrothed or not, even a public woman, may be the object of a violent Abduction inducing the Tridentine impediment and punishment. Lessius, Avancini, and others hold that a man is not guilty of Abduction who carries off his betrothed. The Council of Trent makes no exception, hence we should not. The Abduction of a man by a woman is not included in the Tridentine law. the contrary opinion (De Justis and other earlier authors) is at variance with the language of the Council, which always speaks of the raptor, but nowhere of the raptrix. A woman can be guilty of the crime of raptus; but the question here is not about crime, but about the Tridentine impediment. She may be an agent or accomplice of the abductor and, as such, incur the penalties decreed by the Council; but it does not admit her as raptrix.

(2) Change of Locality. -- Two places are necessary to an Abduction -- one, the place from which, the other, the place to which, the reluctant woman is violently taken, and in which she is also violently detained. These two places must be morally (some say physically, some virtually) different -- the one, from which may be her own or her parents' home, where she is a free agent; the other, to which, must be subject to the power or influence of the abductor, where, though she is free in very many of her actions, she is not perfectly free in all. It is not necessary that the place to which be the house of the abductor; it suffices if it be under his control or influence. Two rooms or two stories in a small dwelling, the home of one family; a street and an adjoining house; a public highway and a nearby field, would not afford the necessary change of locality. Removal, though violent, from room to room as above, would not induce the impediment under consideration, though some hold the contrary opinion. In case of a large castle, or mansion, or tenement-house, where many families dwell, the violent transference of a reluctant woman from a part where her family dwells to another remote part where a different family lives would constitute sufficient change of locality. If a woman is violently seized, v.g. in a room, and is violently kept there without change to another room, or if she willingly, without any enticement on the part of the man, goes to a place and is there violently detained with matrimonial intent, she does not suffer Abduction in the Tridentine sense. It is a mere sequestration, or detention. Some jurists, however, think otherwise, claiming virtual change (from state of freedom to that of subjection) to be sufficient to induce the Council's impediment. Physical transference from one place to another, however, is absolutely necessary to constitute raptus; virtual transference does not suffice. Should a woman be forcibly removed from a place to which she went willingly to another where she is detained against her will with matrimonial intent, it is Abduction.

(3) Violence. -- Abduction always presumes that the abducted dissents, and that her unwillingness is overcome either by physical force, i.e. laying hands upon her, or moral force, i.e. threats, great fear, and fraud equivalent to force. Mere importunities, fair words, sweet phrases, gifts, and promises are not sufficient to constitute the moral force requisite for Abduction. It is immaterial whether the principal, of and by himself, or through his agents and accomplices, uses this force, moral or physical. Women as the agents of the principal, may exercise it, and not infrequently do so.

(4) Matrimonial Intent. -- The intention or motive of the criminal act is all important. To induce the impediment the intent must be to marry the abducted woman. Were the motive other than marriage, e.g. vengeance, pecuniary gain, or gratification of lust, there would be no Abduction, no impediment, no penalties (S. Cong. Cone., 23 Jan., 1585). This is evident also from the custom of the Roman Curia, which, in all dispensations given or faculties granted to ordinaries to dispense in eases of affinity, consanguinity, etc., prefixes "provided that the woman was not abducted on account of this [marriage]". This impediment exists only between the abducted and abductor who, of and by himself, or with the assistance of others, had carried her off with intent to marry her. No impediment arises between the abducted and the agent or abettors of the Abduction. She could validly, therefore, marry one of the agents or accomplices while still under the control of the abductor. When the intention is doubtful, judgment is arrived at from consideration of the circumstances. Thus, if a man violently carries off his betrothed or a woman with whom he has had conversations looking to future marriage, it is presumed that his intention was marriage. If doubts still remain, the law presumes the motive to be matrimonial. Where it is abundantly evident that the initial motive of the Abduction was lust, it is not Abduction, but sequestration, or detention, although afterwards, during the captivity, the captor promise marriage in order to attain his lustful object. The contrary opinion, held by Rosset (De Matrimonio, II, 1354), Krimer, and others, is at variance with the principle of law, that in crimes the beginning, and not what happens accidentally is what the law considers. Were the intent twofold, v.g. lust and marriage, then the carrying off is Abduction and induces the impediment. The Abduction must be proved, not presumed. The mere word of the abducted woman, especially as against the oath of the so-called abductor and the absence of all rumour, does not establish the fact. The existence of the Abduction once admitted, the burden of proof rests upon the abductor. He must conclusively prove that the abducted willingly consented to both Abduction and marriage. If she admits consent to the flight, he must still prove conclusively that she gave willing consent also to the marriage; otherwise the impediment holds and the penalties are incurred. Should he claim (in order to exclude impediment) that his motive in the beginning of the transaction was not marriage, but lust, and that he proposed marriage in order to attain his initial purpose, then he must, by the most conclusive evidence, establish his assertion, since the law presumes that his motive was matrimonial.

PUNISHMENTS

The abductor and his advisers and abettors and accomplices in a complete (copula not required), not merely an attempted, Abduction are, by the law itself (Tridentine), excommunicated (not reserved), and made perpetually infamous, incapable of acquiring dignities; if they be clerics, they also incur deposition from their ecclesiastical rank. The abductor is also bound, whether the woman marries him or not, to dower her with a decent dowry at the discretion of the bishop. The priest who celebrates the marriage while the woman is under restraint does not incur the excommunication nor any other penalty, unless he has advised the abductor that he would aid him in his Abduction by his presence and ministry. The agents and the like, in an Abduction of a woman validly and freely betrothed, but unwilling to be carried off, do not incur excommunication and other Tridentine punishments (S. C. Prop. Fid., 17 April, 1784). The vindictive punishments are incurred, at least in the ecclesiastical court, by a declaratory sentence. The abducted woman, not the abductor, has the right to challenge the validity of her marriage celebrated while under control of the abductor. No particular time is prescribed by law, but she should, however, unless prevented by reasonable cause, present her plea as soon as possible after her entire separation from the control of the abductor.

DISPENSATION

The Church as a rule does not dispense with this impediment. It even refuses to grant other dispensations, v.g. affinity, if the woman was abducted; indeed any dispensation granted, in which mention of the Abduction has been omitted, is held as invalid. There are some cases in which the Church has dispensed when it is abundantly evident that the consent of the woman was really free, although circumstances prevented her entire separation from the control of the abductor. The late Instruction of the Congregation of the Inquisition (15 February, 1901, in the "Analecta Ecclesiastica," Rome, 1901, 98) to the bishops of Albania (where Abduction is of very frequent occurrence) refused a general repeal of the law for their country, adding that the frequency mentioned, far from being a reason for relaxing, was rather a reason for insisting on the Tridentine law; yet, where it was abundantly evident that the consent of the woman under restraint was truly a free consent, and that there were reasons sufficient for the dispensation, recourse should be had to Rome in each single case. Further, in the extraordinary faculties given to bishops (20 February, 1888) for dispensing in public impediments persons in danger of death, the impediment of raptus is not excluded. The civil codes of today, as a rule, do not recognize Abduction as an impediment diriment to civil marriage, but consider it as a species of vis et metus. The codes of Austria and Spain, however, still hold it as an impediment, and among the jurists of Austria there is an earnest endeavour to make it an impediment absolute and perpetual, so that the abducted woman, if still under control of her abductor, may not marry even a third party.

RIGANTI, Comment. in Reg., in Reg. xlix, nn. 46 sq.; SCHMALZGRÜBER, V, xvii, De Rapt. Pers., nn. 1-54, GONSALEZ TELLEZ, Comment. Perpet., V, xvii; BERARDI, Comment. in Jus. Eccles., II, 81 sqq.; WERNZ, IV, Jus Matrim, 408 sqq.; ROSSET, De Sac. Matrim., II, 1344 sqq.; VECCHIOTTI, Instit. Can., III, 234 sqq.; SANTI-LEITNER, IV, 58-65; FEIJE, De Imped. et Dispens.; KUTSCHKER, Das Eherecht (1856), III, 456 sqq.; Analecta Ecclesiastica (Rome, April, 1903); HOWARD, Hist. of Matrimonial inst., I, 156 sq., s.v. Wife-Captor; Acta Sanctae Sedis, I, 15-24; 54 sq.; GASPARI, De Matrim., I, 364 sqq.

P.M.J. ROCK

Ab*duc"tion (#), n. [L. abductio: cf. F. abduction.]

1.

The act of abducing or abducting; a drawing apart; a carrying away.

Roget.

2. Physiol.

The movement which separates a limb or other part from the axis, or middle line, of the body.

3. Law

The wrongful, and usually the forcible, carrying off of a human being; as, the abduction of a child, the abduction of an heiress.

4. Logic

A syllogism or form of argument in which the major is evident, but the minor is only probable.