upload = U = upthread

upstream adj.

[common] Towards the original author(s) or maintainer(s) of a project. Used in connection with software that is distributed both in its original source form and in derived, adapted versions through a distribution (like the Debian version of Linux or one of the BSD ports) that has component maintainers for each of their parts. When a component maintainer receives a bug report or patch, he may choose to retain the patch as a porting tweak to the distribution's derivative of the project, or to pass it upstream to the project's maintainer. The antonym `downstream' is rare.

--The Jargon File version 4.3.1, ed. ESR, autonoded by rescdsk.

Upstream is a term used to describe something that is located opposite the direction of transcription; that is, in a 3'5' direction along a strand of DNA or RNA.

The 3' (pronounced three prime) end of a genetic molecule, whether it be DNA or RNA, is the one with a hydroxyl group (OH) hanging off the end of the pentose sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), or more specifically from the sugar's 3' carbon atom. If we continue with the river analogy that upstream or downstream uses, the 3' end would be in the direction the river flows in, ultimately ending at the river's mouth.

The 5' (five prime) end is the one with a loose phosphate group hanging off the end of the sugar's 5' carbon. In the river analogy, this would be the source.

It's actually much clearer with a picture.

downstream →
5' ATTCGTCCGATTAGCGTA 3'
← upstream

Up*stream" (?), adv.

Toward the higher part of a stream; against the current.

 

© Webster 1913.

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