1.A book by Tor Norretranders
(sp?}. Talks about (2).
2. The illusion that we are in charge of the momentary actions and reactions of our brains. Tests show that takes us hundreds of milliseconds to become conscious of a stimulus, even though we may remember the stimulus occuring exactly when it did, that is, earlier than we became conscious of it. (A kind of "backdating") We can even respond to a stimulus before we become conscious of it. People will make up all kinds of exuses to maintain the illusion that consciousness initiated the reaction, even though it would have been impossible. Very counterintuitive and disturbing, but there's lots of empirical evidence that has no other plausible explanation.
3. A computer science term that Tor borrowed. I don't understand it, so someone else had better define it.