The Story of an Hour

by Kate Chopin, ca 1894

I chose this short story for inclusion into E2 because of its delicious use of irony and foreshadowing as well as its controversial (for 1894) theme. It is, in my opinion, one of the best in Chopin's body of work.

Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband's death.

It was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentences; veiled hints that revealed in half concealing. Her husband's friend Richards was there, too, near her. It was he who had been in the newspaper office when intelligence of the railroad disaster was received, with Brently Mallard's name leading the list of "killed." He had only taken to time to assure himself of its truth by a second telegram, and had hastened to forestall any less careful, less tender friend in bearing the sad message.

She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister's arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow.

There stood, facing the open window, a comfortable, roomy armchair. Into this she sank, pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul.

She could see in the open square before her house the tops of threes that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which some one was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves.

There were patches of blue sky showing here and there through the clouds that had met and piled one above the other in the west facing her window.

She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair, quite motionless, except when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried itself to sleep continues to sob in its dreams.

She was young, with a fair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain strength. But now there was a dull stare in her eyes, whose gaze was fixed away off yonder on one of those patches of blue sky. It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of intelligent thought.

There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out of the sky, reaching toward her through the sounds, the scents, the color that filled the air.

Now her bosom rose and fell tumultuously, She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will--as powerless as her two white slender hands would have been.

When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under her breath: "free, free, free!" The vacant stare and the look of terror that had followed it went from her eyes. They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast, and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body.

She did not stop to ask if it were or were not a monstrous joy that held her. A clear and exalted perception enabled her to dismiss the suggestion as trivial.

She knew that she would weep again when she saw the kind, tender hands folded in death; the face that had never looked save with love upon her, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And she opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome.

There would be no one to live for her during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bending hers in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow-creature. A kind intention or a cruel intention made the act seem no less a crime as she looked upon it in that brief moment of illumination.

And yet she had loved him--sometimes. Often she had not. What did it matter! What could love, the unsolved mystery, count for in face of this possession of self-assertion which she suddenly recognized as the strongest impulse of her being!

"Free! Body and soul free!" she kept whispering.

Josephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhole, imploring for admission. "Louise, open the door! I beg; open the door--you will make yourself ill. What are you doing, Louise? For heaven's sake open the door.

"Go away. I am not making myself ill." No; she was drinking in a very elixir of life though that open window.

Her fancy was running riot along those days ahead of her. Spring days, and summer days, and all sorts of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had though with a shudder that life might be long.

She arose at length and opened the door to her sister's importunities. There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of Victory. She clasped her sister's waist, and together they descended the stairs. Richards stood waiting for them at the bottom.

Some one was opening the front door with a latchkey. It was Brently Mallard who entered, a little travel-stained, composedly carrying his grip-sack and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of accident, and did not even know that there had been one. He stood amazed at Josephine's piercing cry; at Richards' quick motion to screen himself from the view of his wife.

But Richards was too late.

When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease--of joy that kills.

In her short work of prose The Story of an Hour Kate Chopin exhibits a different perspective on the realism movement that followed Transcendentalism in American literature. While most works concerned themselves with satisfying the public thirst for tales of the frontier and shying away from what was felt to be the growing stilted nature of romantic literature, her story had an altogether different purpose. Kate Chopin applies the clarifying insturment of realism to general conceptions of marriage, showing that the stereotypical blissful existance of matrimony is not all that it seems.

The most noticable way in which she depicts this is through irony. There are two types employed in the story. One is the situational irony of her reaction to the news of her husband's death. While the reader would expect unqualified grief from Mrs. Mallard, instead s/he finds the wife is actually possessed with joy at the news. It is not a Schadenfreude or cruelty, but rather the surprising depiction of Mrs. Mallard's unwanted subservience which creates the situational irony. This may not seem so unexpected in these modern times, but in the time of Chopin it would have been a very great irony indeed. The other important element of irony is the dramatic sort found at the end of the story. While everyone seems to think that Mrs. Mallard's heart was overcome by the joy of her husband's metaphorical resurrection, the reader knows that what in fact killed Mrs. Mallard was not joy, but sadness. The sadness of returning to a life of being bound to her husband and his fate is too leveling for the poor woman to handle. Both of these ironic uses help achieve Chopin's goal of realism by depicting a relationship as it more truly is. Instead of blissful and conflict-free, we find that Mrs. Mallard is trapped in a muddled, confused state of emotions. She grieves for her husband, yet finds freedom and happiness in his death. Things are far more layered with shades of grey than first glance might reveal.

The conclusion to which Chopin brings her story is also important. Mrs. Mallard's death is a vital aspect of the communication of Chopin's theme, without it the realism and representationalism of the situation is ruined. Mrs. Mallard goes through an epiphany, she realizes what a burden has been lifted from her in her husband's death. Her soul is sent souring by the new freedom to which she can look forward in absence of the obligation towards her husband. Epiphanies are not reversible. Once she has made the realization, there is no turning back. Were she to return to her previous state of life upon the discovery of her husband's survival, the impact of Chopin's theme would have been severly dampened. Likewise, allowing for an easy change and a happy ending would have broken with the realism of the situation, Mrs. Mallard would have been expected to fulfill her allotted role in the society of the time. The most effective method was to make use of Mrs. Mallard's heart condition to bring the story to a believable, and communicative end.

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