Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Herbert MacNair, and Margaret and Frances Macdonald made up an Arts and Crafts group at the beginning of the 20th century. They emphasized the "crafts" aspect by working on not just painting and illustration but also furniture and metalwork. They created a striking body of work with abstracted, eerie female figures and metamorphic lines that was somewhat reminiscent of weirdly beautiful work of illustrator Aubrey Beardsley. They were derisively known as the Spook School and treated with distaste in the British Isles because of their associations with the continental decadence of Art Nouveau.

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