Shesanyankena Charamena:

*The remainders by the last digit*
Shesanyankena Charamena is the twelfth

sutra of

Vedic mathematics. Its corollary is

Vilokanam. It shares some similarities with the first sutra,

Ekadhikina Purvena.

This sutra can be used to express a

fraction as a

decimal, to all it's decimal places.

**Example:** Express 1/7 as a decimal

*Part One:*
Add a zero to the

numerator: 10

If this number is less than the

denominator, add another zero. If it is greater than the denomonator, proceed to the next step.

Divide this number by the denomonator and

*pay attention to the remainder*: 10 / 7 = 1 with a remainder of

**3**
Add a zero to this remainder and divide it by the denomonator: 30 / 7 = 4 with a remainder of

**2**
Add a zero to this remainder and divide it by the denomonator: 20 / 7 = 2 with a remainder of

**6**
Add a zero to this remainder and divide it by the denomonator: 60 / 7 = 8 with a remainder of

**4**
Add a zero to this remainder and divide it by the denomonator: 40 / 7 = 5 with a remainder of

**5**
Add a zero to this remainder and divide it by the denomonator: 50 / 7 = 7 with a remainder of

**1**
At this point, notice that this remainder (1) is the same number as the numerator. The answer is going to repeat from here on out, so we'll stop.

These remainders, written in order, will be used for step two:

**3, 2, 6, 4, 5, 1**
*Part Two:*
Multiply the denomonator by the first number in the sequence above: 7 x 3 = 21

Write down the leftmost digit of this

product (

**1**) and drop all the other digits. Unlike

Ekadhikina Purvena, this sutra

*does not* require any numbers be carried.

Multiply the denomonator by the second number in the sequence above: 7 x 2 = 14

Write down the leftmost digit of this product (

**4**) and drop all the other digits.
Multiply the denomonator by the third number in the sequence above: 7 x 6 = 42

Write down the leftmost digit of this product (

**2**) and drop all the other digits.
Multiply the denomonator by the fourth number in the sequence above: 7 x 4 = 28

Write down the leftmost digit of this product (

**8**) and drop all the other digits.
Multiply the denomonator by the fifth number in the sequence above: 7 x 5 = 35

Write down the leftmost digit of this product (

**5**) and drop all the other digits.
Multiply the denomonator by the sixth and last number in the sequence above: 7 x 1 = 7

Write down this product (

**7**)

Write down these products in sequence:

**1 4 2 8 5 7**
Thus, 1/7 = 0.142857142857

repeating
To learn more about this sutra, check out the resources below:

**RESOURCES:**

*Vedic Mathematics* by Sri Bharati Krisna Tirthaji

http://www.vedamu.org/Mathematics/course.asp

http://www.sanalnair.org/articles/vedmath/intro.htm

http://www.vedicganita.org/ganitsutras.htm

http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/aa062901a.htm

http://www.vedicmaths.org/

http://www.hinduism.co.za/vedic.htm

*Mathemagics* by Arthur Benjamin and Michael B. Shermer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vedic_math

http://www.tifr.res.in/~vahia/dani-vmsm.pdf

http://www.sacw.net/DC/CommunalismCollection/ArticlesArchive/NoVedic.html